Now showing items 1-13 of 13

    • Adaptive prediction error coding in the human midbrain and striatum facilitates behavioral adaptation and learning efficiency 

      Diederen, Kelly; Spencer, Tom; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Fletcher, Paul; Schultz, Wolfram (Elsevier (Cell Press), 2016-05-12)
      Effective error-driven learning benefits from scaling of prediction errors to reward variability. Such behavioral adaptation may be facilitated by neurons coding prediction errors relative to the standard deviation (SD) ...
    • Choice mechanisms for past, temporally extended outcomes 

      Vestergaard, Martin D.; Schultz, Wolfram (Royal Society Publishing, 2015-06-10)
      Accurate retrospection is critical in many decision scenarios ranging from investment banking to hedonic psychology. A notoriously difficult case is to integrate previously perceived values over the duration of an experience. ...
    • Components and Characteristics of the Dopamine Reward Utility Signal 

      Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram (Wiley, 2015-09-08)
      Rewards are defined by their behavioral functions in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices, and emotions. Dopamine neurons respond to rewards with two components, similar to higher order ...
    • Dopamine modulates the neural representation of subjective value of food in hungry subjects 

      Medic, Nenad; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Henning, Elana; Schultz, Wolfram; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C. (Society for Neuroscience, 2014-12-10)
      While there is a rich literature on the role of dopamine in value learning, much less is known about its role in using established value estimations to shape decision-making. Here we investigated the effect of dopaminergic ...
    • Dopamine neuron-specific optogenetic stimulation in Rhesus macaques 

      Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Yang, Aimei; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Boyden, Edward S.; Schultz, Wolfram (Elsevier (Cell Press), 2016)
      Optogenetic studies in mice have revealed new relationships between well-defined neurons and brain functions. However, there are currently no means to achieve the same cell-type specificity in monkeys, which possess an ...
    • Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data 

      Schultz, Wolfram (2010-04-23)
      Abstract Background Previous lesion, electrical self-stimulation and drug addiction studies suggest that the midbrain dopamine systems are parts of the reward system of the brain. This review provides an updated overview ...
    • A dynamic code for economic object valuation in prefrontal cortex neurons 

      Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram (Nature Publishing Group, 2016)
      Neuronal reward valuations provide the physiological basis for economic behavior. Yet, how such valuations relate to economic decisions remains unclear. Here we show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) implements ...
    • Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys 

      Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram (2015-02-17)
      Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability ...
    • Herding and Social Pressure in Trading Tasks: A Behavioural Analysis 

      Baddeley, Michelle; Pillas, Demetris; Christopoulos, Yorgos; Schultz, Wolfram; Tobler, Phillipe (Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK, 2007-05)
      We extend the experimental literature on Bayesian herding using evidence from a financial decision-making experiment. We identify significant propensities to herd increasing with the degree of herd-consensus. We test various ...
    • Impacts of Personality on Herding in Financial Decision-Making 

      Baddeley, Michelle; Burke, C.; Schultz, Wolfram; Tobler, T. (Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK, 2010-01)
    • A neuronal reward inequity signal in primate striatum 

      Báez-Mendoza, Raymundo; van Coeverden, Charlotte R.; Schultz, Wolfram (American Physiological Society, 2015-09-16)
      Primates are social animals, and their survival depends on social interactions with others. Especially important for social interactions and welfare is the observation of rewards obtained by other individuals and the ...
    • Partial adaptation of obtained and observed value signals preserves information about gains and losses 

      Burke, Christopher J.; Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Schultz, Wolfram (Society for Neuroscience, 2016)
      Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to ...
    • Scaling prediction errors to reward variability benefits error-driven learning in humans 

      Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Schultz, Wolfram (American Physiological Society, 2015-09-01)
      Effective error-driven learning requires individuals to adapt learning to environmental reward variability. The adaptive mechanism may involve decays in learning rate across subsequent trials, as shown previously, and ...