Item Published version Open AccessResearch Matters Special Issue 3: An approach to validation - republished with Afterword(Research Division, Cambridge University Press & Assessment, 2022-01-01) Shaw,Stuart; Crisp, VickiThis Special Issue of Research Matters is an important landmark since it provides the most detailed validation study of a public examination in England that we have seen. It offers both the theoretical basis for the study and then a detailed investigation of what this means in practice when applied to a complex examination. Item Published version Open AccessAn approach to validation: Developing and applying an approach for the validation of general qualifications(Research Division, Cambridge University Press & Assessment, 2012-10-01) Shaw, Stuart; Crisp, VickiThis Special Issue begins with a discussion of the concepts of validity and validation and the perspective taken in the current work. The development of the validation framework and later revision will then be described. This is followed by some information on the assessment context in which the validation studies were conducted and an overview of the methods used to gather validation evidence, including some description of some methods that were piloted with A level Geography but were not used in the later study with A level Physics. The methods, analyses and findings from each method are then described for International A level Physics. The validity argument is then evaluated and a final section provides a conclusion and brief comments on challenges in validation activities.