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  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    Diagnosing cancer in patients with 'non-alarm' symptoms: Learning from diagnostic care innovations in Denmark.
    (Elsevier BV, 2018-06) Forster, Alice S; Renzi, Cristina; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios [0000-0002-2873-7421]
    Efforts to improve cancer outcomes have led to the introduction of policies to enable ‘fast-track’ referrals from primary to secondary care for patients with possible cancer. Although these schemes, also known as ‘two-week-wait’ referrals, have been successful in shortening diagnostic intervals [1,2], their usefulness is limited to patients who present with ‘alarm’ symptoms of relatively high predictive value for neoplastic disease [1,3]. In contrast, achieving a prompt diagnostic resolution in the approximate half of all cancer patients who initially present with non-specific and lower risk symptoms remains a challenge [1,2]. To address this problem, hospital-based multi-disciplinary diagnostic services have been recently introduced in Denmark and England for patients with non-specific symptoms [4,5]. Two Danish studies published recently in this Journal add substantially to relevant emerging evidence [6,7].
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    No evidence for surface organization in Kanizsa configurations during continuous flash suppression.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-04) Moors, Pieter; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond; de-Wit, Lee; De-Wit, Lee [0000-0003-3048-2875]
    Does one need to be aware of a visual stimulus for it to be perceptually organized into a coherent whole? The answer to this question regarding the interplay between Gestalts and visual awareness remains unclear. Using interocular suppression as the paradigm for rendering stimuli invisible, conflicting evidence has been obtained as to whether the traditional Kanizsa surface is constructed during interocular suppression. While Sobel and Blake (2003) and Harris, Schwarzkopf, Song, Bahrami, and Rees (2011) failed to find evidence for this, Wang, Weng, and He (2012) showed that standard configurations of Kanizsa pacmen would break interocular suppression faster than their rotated counterparts. In the current study, we replicated the findings by Wang et al. (2012) but show that neither an account based on the construction of a surface nor one based on the long-range collinearities in the standard Kanizsa configuration stimulus could fully explain the difference in breakthrough times. We discuss these findings in the context of differences in the amplitudes of the Fourier orientation spectra for all stimulus types. Thus, we find no evidence that the integration of separate elements takes place during interocular suppression of Kanizsa stimuli, suggesting that this Gestalt involving figure-ground assignment is not constructed when rendered nonconscious using interocular suppression.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Is neuroimaging measuring information in the brain?
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-10) de-Wit, Lee; Alexander, David; Ekroll, Vebjørn; Wagemans, Johan; De-Wit, Lee [0000-0003-3048-2875]
    Psychology moved beyond the stimulus response mapping of behaviorism by adopting an information processing framework. This shift from behavioral to cognitive science was partly inspired by work demonstrating that the concept of information could be defined and quantified (Shannon, 1948). This transition developed further from cognitive science into cognitive neuroscience, in an attempt to measure information in the brain. In the cognitive neurosciences, however, the term information is often used without a clear definition. This paper will argue that, if the formulation proposed by Shannon is applied to modern neuroimaging, then numerous results would be interpreted differently. More specifically, we argue that much modern cognitive neuroscience implicitly focuses on the question of how we can interpret the activations we record in the brain (experimenter-as-receiver), rather than on the core question of how the rest of the brain can interpret those activations (cortex-as-receiver). A clearer focus on whether activations recorded via neuroimaging can actually act as information in the brain would not only change how findings are interpreted but should also change the direction of empirical research in cognitive neuroscience.
  • ItemEmbargo
    ‘Illicit antiquities’? The collection of Nazi militaria in the Channel Islands
    (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-29) Carr, G; Carr, Gillian [0000-0002-6683-5778]
    This article explores the collection of Nazi or German militaria in the Channel Islands and the change in meaning that this practice has held for four generations of islanders from 1945 to the present day. Focusing on the role of children in building this trade in militaria, it examines why they have been the primary agents of collection and asks what meaning or value such objects hold for them. This article proposes the concept of ‘inherited nostalgia’ to explain the desire of the third and fourth generations for such objects. It also presents German militaria as ‘postmemorial objects’, and their display as a ‘postmemorial project’, as a way of understanding their meaning in this particular formerly occupied part of Europe.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    The Basis of Correctness in the Religious Studies Classroom
    (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2016-11) BOURNE, CRAIG; CADDICK BOURNE, EMILY; JARMY, CLARE
    What is it that makes a student’s answer correct or incorrect in Religious Studies? In practice, the standards of correctness in the RS classroom are generally applied with relative ease by teachers and students. Nevertheless, they are problematic. We shall argue that correctness does not come from either the students or the teacher believing that what has been said is true. This raises the question: what is correctness, if it does not come down to truth? We propose, and examine, three rival solutions, each of which, to an extent, rationalises a fairly natural response to the problem. The first, the elliptical approach, says that correct contributions have some tacit content: they are elliptical for true sentences about beliefs (e.g. a sentence of the form ‘Christians believe that…’). The second, the imaginative approach, seeks to replace appeals to truth and belief with an appeal to imagination, treating RS as a ‘game of make-believe’ in which teachers and students imaginatively engage with certain worldviews. The third, the institutional approach, locates the root of correctness in the practices of the RS institution, which include making endorsements of some judgements and not others. We show that the first of our proposed approaches encounters a number of significant objections. We find the second of our proposed approaches to be better, but the third is the most attractive, providing a direct, intuitive and comprehensive route through the problem of correctness.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    “Have you been offended?” Holocaust memory in the Channel Islands at HMD 70
    (Informa UK Limited, 2016-01-02) Carr, G; Carr, Gillian [0000-0002-6683-5778]
    The Channel Islands have experienced great difficulty in coming to terms with the Holocaust given the implication of the local authorities in the registration of the islands’ Jewish population during the German occupation. While the situation in Jersey began to change in the 1990s due to the actions of the island's leadership, the issue is still taboo in Guernsey today. Taking a historical approach, this article addresses the power of that taboo at the time of Holocaust Memorial Day 2015, proposing the concept of the “incremental memory event” as a way of understanding the differences in memory in both islands.