## Arithmetic structure in sets of integers

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##### Authors

Wolf, Julia

##### Date

2008-05-20##### Awarding Institution

University of Cambridge

##### Qualification

PhD

##### Language

English

##### Type

Thesis

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Show full item record##### Citation

Wolf, J. (2008). Arithmetic structure in sets of integers (doctoral thesis). https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.16214

##### Abstract

This dissertation deals with four problems concerning arithmetic structures in dense
sets of integers. In Chapter 1 we give an exposition of the state-of-the-art technique
due to Pintz, Steiger and Szemer edi which yields the best known upper bound on
the density of sets whose di erence set is square-free. Inspired by the well-known
fact that Fourier analysis is not su cient to detect progressions of length 4 or more,
we determine in Chapter 2 a necessary and sufficient condition on a system of linear
equations which guarantees the correct number of solutions in any uniform subset of
Fnp. This joint work with Tim Gowers constitutes the core of this thesis and relies
heavily on recent progress in so-called "quadratic Fourier analysis" pioneered by Gowers,
Green and Tao. In particular, we use a structure theorem for bounded functions
which provides a decomposition into a quadratically structured and a quadratically
uniform part. We also present an alternative decomposition leading to improved
bounds for the main result, and discuss the connections with recent results in ergodic
theory. Chapter 3 deals with improved upper and lower bounds on the minimum
number of monochromatic 4-term progressions in any two-colouring of ZN. Finally,
in Chapter 4 we investigate the structure of the set of popular di erences of a subset
of ZN. More precisely, we establish that, given a subset of size linear in N, the set of
its popular differences does not always contain the complete difference set of another
large set.