Coupled counter-rotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials
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Dreismann, A., Cristofolini, P., Balili, R., Christmanna, G., Pinsker, F., Berloff, N., Hatzopoulos, Z., et al. (2014). Coupled counter-rotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials. PNAS https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1401988111
Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counter-propagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal-condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics.
Polariton, Condensate, Interferometer
We acknowledge grants EPSRC EP/G060649/1, EU INDEX 289968, Spanish MEC (MAT2008-01555), Greek GSRT ARISTEIA programs Irakleitos II and Apollo and the Skolkovo Foundation.
EC FP7 MC ITN (289968)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1401988111
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/245378