Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens
le, Pendu Jacques
Journal of Virology
American Society for Microbiology
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Caddy, S., Breiman, A., le, P. J., & Goodfellow, I. G. (2014). Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens. Journal of Virology, 88 10377-10391.
Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in man worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism amongst human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I, II and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI-GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV or GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV, and compare this to the binding specificity of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs), and identified α1,2 fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using ELISAs and immunohistochemistry confirmed that α1,2 fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans.
The authors would like to thank Wood Green Animal Shelter for allowing SC to collect canine saliva samples, and Dr. Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet and Béatrice Vaidye for the preparation of the anti-CNV antibodies. The authors also thank Dr. Takane Katayama (Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa, Japan) for his generous gift of 1,2fucosidase and the Cellular and Tissular Imaging core facility of the Nantes University (MicroPiCell). This collaborative project was greatly facilitated by the Society of Microbiology’s President’s Fund awarded to SC and by the Region des Pays de la Loire ARMINA project. This work was supported by a PhD studentship from the Medical Research Council to SC and a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship to IG (Ref: WT097997MA). IG is a Wellcome Senior Fellow.
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