Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
MetadataShow full item record
Roman-Urrestarazu, A., Lindholm, P., Moilanen, I., Kiviniemi, V., Miettunen, J., Jääskeläinen, E., Mäki, P., et al. (2015). Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-015-0755-8
When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnormalities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence-ADHD, n=49) or a control group (n=34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n=21; Controls n=23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally in adolescence-ADHD participants in the caudate (p<0.05 FWE-corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence-ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasize the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time.
This work was supported by an Academy of Finland Award to Dr Veijola; a Sigrid Juselius Foundation grant to Dr Moilanen; a Medical Research Council fellowship to Dr Murray (G0701911); a NARSAD, the Brain and Behavior Research Fund independent investigator award to Dr Miettunen; an Oon Khye Beng Ch'Hia Tsio Studentships in Preventative Medicine awarded by Downing College, Cambridge to Dr Roman-Urrestarazu together with a Becas Chile Doctoral Grant awarded by CONICYT, an Academy of Finland grant and Finnish Medical Foundation grant to Dr Kiviniemi, and an award from the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Finland, to Dr Mäki.. The work was partially conducted with the University of Cambridge Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Centre, supported by a joint award from the Medical Research Council (G1000183) and Wellcome Trust (093875/Z/10Z).
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (G0001354)
Wellcome Trust (093875/Z/10/Z)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-015-0755-8
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/249099
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/