Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with high-risk albumin-to-creatinine ratio in young adolescents with type 1 diabetes in AdDIT (adolescent type 1 diabetes cardio-renal interventional trial).

Cho, Yoon Hi 
Craig, Maria E 
Davis, Elizabeth A 
Cotterill, Andrew M 
Couper, Jennifer J 

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OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between cardiac autonomic dysfunction and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adolescents recruited as part of a multicenter screening study (n = 445, 49% female, aged 10-17 years, mean duration 6.9 years; mean HbA1c 8.4%, 68 mmol/mol) underwent a 10-min continuous electrocardiogram recording for heart rate variability analysis. Time-domain heart rate variability measures included baseline heart rate, SD of the R-R interval (SDNN), and root mean squared difference of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD). Spectral analysis included sympathetic (low-frequency) and parasympathetic (high-frequency) components. Standardized ACR were calculated from six early morning urine collections using an established algorithm, reflecting age, sex, and duration, and stratified into ACR tertiles, where the upper tertile reflects higher nephropathy risk. RESULTS: The upper-tertile ACR group had a faster heart rate (76 vs. 73 bpm; P < 0.01) and less heart rate variability (SDNN 68 vs. 76 ms, P = 0.02; RMSSD 63 vs. 71 ms, P = 0.04). HbA1c was 8.5% (69 mmol/mmol) in the upper tertile vs. 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in the lower tertiles (P = 0.07). In multivariable analysis, upper-tertile ACR was associated with faster heart rate (β = 2.5, 95% CI 0.2-4.8, P = 0.03) and lower RMSSD (β = -9.5, 95% CI -18.2 to -0.8, P = 0.03), independent of age and HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents at potentially higher risk for nephropathy show an adverse cardiac autonomic profile, indicating sympathetic overdrive, compared with the lower-risk group. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will further characterize the relationship between autonomic and renal dysfunction and the effect of interventions in this population.

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Adolescent, Albumins, Autonomic Nervous System, Blood Pressure, Creatinine, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Diabetic Nephropathies, Electrocardiography, Female, Heart, Heart Rate, Humans, Male, Risk Factors
Journal Title
Diabetes Care
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American Diabetes Association
Diabetes UK (None)
British Heart Foundation (via University College London (UCL)) (07CC14)
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Ltd (JDRF) (8-2007-902)
Diabetes UK (06/0003341)
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (NHMRC) 632521, Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG), Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, British Heart Foundation, Diabetes UK.