Prevalence of CADASIL and Fabry Disease in a Cohort of MRI defined Younger onset Lacunar Stroke
Kilarski, Laura L
Hughes, Derralynn A
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Kilarski, L. L., Jacobs, L., Bevan, S., Baker, R., Hassan, A., Hughes, D. A., & Markus, H. (2015). Prevalence of CADASIL and Fabry Disease in a Cohort of MRI defined Younger onset Lacunar Stroke. PLoS ONE, 10 (e0136352)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136352
Background and Purpose: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene, is the most common monogenic disorder causing lacunar stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Fabry disease (FD) due to mutations in the GLA gene has been suggested as an underdiagnosed cause of stroke, and one feature is SVD. Previous studies reported varying prevalence of CADASIL and FD in stroke, likely due to varying subtypes studied; no studies have looked at a large cohort of younger onset SVD. We determined the prevalence in a well-defined, MRI-verified cohort of apparently sporadic patients with lacunar infarct. Methods: Caucasian patients with lacunar infarction, aged ≤70 years (mean age 56.7 (SD8.6)), were recruited from 72 specialist stroke centres throughout the UK as part of the Young Lacunar Stroke DNA Resource. Patients with a previously confirmed monogenic cause of stroke were excluded. All MRI’s and clinical histories were reviewed centrally. Screening was performed for NOTCH3 and GLA mutations. Results: Of 994 subjects five had pathogenic NOTCH3 mutations (R169C, R207C, R587C, C1222G and C323S) all resulting in loss or gain of a cysteine in the NOTCH3 protein. All five patients had confluent leukoaraiosis (Fazekas grade >2). CADASIL prevalence overall was 0.5% (95% CI 0.2%-1.1%) and among cases with confluent leukoaraiosis 1.5% (95% CI 0.6%-3.3%). No classic pathogenic FD mutations were found; one patient had a missense mutation (R118C), associated with late-onset FD. Conclusion: CADASIL cases are rare and only detected in SVD patients with confluent leukoaraiosis. No definite FD cases were detected.
The UK Young Lacunar Stroke DNA Study was funded by a grants from the Wellcome Trust (WT072952, www.wellcome.ac.uk) and the Stroke Association (TSA 2010/01& TSA 2013/02, www.stroke.org.uk). Fabry disease screening was supported by an unrestricted scientific grant from Shire Human Genetic Therapies (www.shire.com). The sponsors of the study had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, writing of the manuscript, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. L R-J’s salary is funded by a Stroke Association/ British Heart Foundation grant. (TSA/BHF 2010/01). HM is supported by an National Institute for Health Research Senior Investigator award (www.nihr.ac.uk). HM and SB are supported by the Cambridge University Trust National Institute for Health Research Comprehensive Research Centre (www.cambridge-brc.org.uk).
Stroke Association (TSA BHF 2010/01)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136352
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/249290
Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/
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