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dc.contributor.authorRajão, Daniel Sen
dc.contributor.authorGauger, Phillip Cen
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Tavis Ken
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Nicolaen
dc.contributor.authorAbente, Eugenio Jen
dc.contributor.authorKillian, Mary Leaen
dc.contributor.authorPerez, Daniel Ren
dc.contributor.authorSutton, Troy Cen
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Jianqiangen
dc.contributor.authorVincent, Amy Len
dc.date.accessioned2015-09-18T11:46:18Z
dc.date.available2015-09-18T11:46:18Z
dc.date.issued2015-08-26en
dc.identifier.citationRajão et al. Journal of Virology (2015) Vol. 89, Issue 22, pp. 11213-11222. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01675-15en
dc.identifier.issn0022-538X
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/251060
dc.description.abstractHuman-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) were detected by the USDA surveillance system. We characterized two novel swine human-like H3N2 and H3N1 viruses with HA genes similar to human seasonal H3 strains and the internal genes closely related to 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. The H3N2 NA was of the contemporary human N2 lineage, while the H3N1 NA was of the classical swine N1 lineage. Both viruses were antigenically distant from swine H3 viruses that circulate in the U.S. and from swine vaccine strains, and also showed antigenic drift from human seasonal H3N2. Their pathogenicity and transmission in pigs were compared to a human H3N2 with common HA ancestry. Both swine human-like H3 viruses efficiently infected pigs and transmitted to indirect contacts, whereas the human H3N2 was much less efficient. To evaluate the role of genes from the swine isolates on their pathogenesis, reverse genetics-generated reassortants between the swine human-like H3N1 and the seasonal human H3N2 were tested in pigs. Gene segment contribution to virulence was complex with the swine HA and internal genes showing effect in vivo. The experimental infections indicate that these novel H3 viruses are virulent and can sustain onward transmission in pigs, and the naturally occurring mutations in the HA were associated with antigenic divergence from H3 IAV from human and swine. Consequently, these viruses could have a significant impact on the swine industry if they cause more widespread outbreaks, and the potential risk of these emerging swine IAV to humans should be considered. IMPORTANCE: Pigs are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAV). Human-to-swine transmissions of IAV have resulted in the circulation of reassortant viruses containing human-origin genes in pigs, greatly contributing to the diversity of IAV in swine worldwide. New human-like H3N2 and H3N1 viruses that contain a mix of human and swine gene segments were recently detected by the USDA surveillance system. The human-like viruses efficiently infected pigs and resulted in onward airborne transmission, likely due to multiple changes identified between human and swine H3 viruses. The human-like swine viruses are distinct from contemporary U.S. H3 swine viruses and from the strains used in swine vaccines, which could have a significant impact on the swine industry due to lack of population immunity. Additionally, public health experts should consider appropriate risk assessment for these emerging swine H3N1 for the human population.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe gratefully acknowledge pork producers, swine veterinarians, and laboratories for participating in the USDA Influenza Virus Surveillance System for swine. The authors thank Michelle Harland and Gwen Nordholm for assistance with laboratory techniques, and Jason Huegel, Ty Standley, and Jason Crabtree for assistance with animal studies. We thank Dr Susan Brockmeier for assisting with bacterial screening and Kerrie Franzen for whole genome sequencing. Funding was provided from USDA-ARS and USDA- APHIS. D.S. Rajao was a CNPq-Brazil scholarship recipient. T.K. Anderson and E.J. Abente were supported in part by an appointment to the ARS-USDA Research Participation Program administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and USDA. ORISE is managed by ORAU under DOE contract number DE- AC05-06OR23100.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
dc.titleNovel reassortant human-like H3N2 and H3N1 influenza A viruses detected in pigs are virulent and antigenically distinct from endemic virusesen
dc.title.alternativeNovel Human-Like H3 Influenza A Viruses in Pigsen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American Society for Microbiology via http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01675-15en
prism.endingPage11222
prism.publicationDate2015en
prism.publicationNameJournal of Virologyen
prism.startingPage11213
prism.volume89en
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-08-19en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1128/JVI.01675-15en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-08-26en
dc.identifier.eissn1098-5514
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2016-02-26


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