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dc.contributor.authorKeskinen, Een
dc.contributor.authorMarttila, Aen
dc.contributor.authorMarttila, Ren
dc.contributor.authorJones, Peteren
dc.contributor.authorMurray, Grahamen
dc.contributor.authorMoilanen, Ken
dc.contributor.authorKoivumaa-Honkanen, Hen
dc.contributor.authorMäki, Pen
dc.contributor.authorIsohanni, Men
dc.contributor.authorJääskeläinen, Een
dc.contributor.authorMiettunen, Jen
dc.identifier.citationEuropean Psychiatry 2015, 30(6) 717-727. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.04.006en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. Aim: To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. Methods: We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Results: Parental psychosis was associated (P < 0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df] = 1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.11–3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis, a delay in the following milestones increased the risk of schizophrenia: standing without support and walking without support. Parental psychosis had an interaction with delayed touching thumb with index finger (HR: 1.87; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.08–3.25) when risk of schizophrenia was investigated. Conclusions: Parental psychosis was associated with achieving motor milestones later in infancy, particularly the milestones that appear early in a child's life. Parental psychosis and touching the thumb with the index finger had a significant interaction on risk of schizophrenia. Genetic risk for psychosis may interact with delayed development to raise future risk of schizophrenia, or delayed development may be a marker of other risk processes that interact with genetic liability to cause later schizophrenia.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by grants from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, Northern Finland Health Care Support Foundation, Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, and the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Finland. NFBC 1966 received financial support from the Academy of Finland (104781, 120315, 129269, 1114194, 24300796, 268336, 278286), Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics and SALVE, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter of Oulu, Finland, University of Oulu, Finland (75617, 24002054, 2400692), Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (50459, 50691, 50842, 2749, 2465), NHLBI grant 5R01HL087679-02 through the STAMPEED program (1RL1MH083268-01), NIH/NIMH (5R01MH63706:02), ENGAGE project and grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2007-(201413), EU FP7 EurHEALTHAgeing (277849), EU FP7 EurHealth Epi-Migrant (279143), European Regional Development Fund 537/2010 (24300936) and the Medical Research Council, UK (G0500539, G0600705, G1002319, PrevMetSyn/SALVE).
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License*
dc.subjectParental psychosisen
dc.subjectRisk factoren
dc.subjectMotor developmental milestoneen
dc.subjectBirth cohorten
dc.titleInteraction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population cohorten
dc.description.versionThis is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via
prism.publicationNameEuropean Psychiatryen
dc.contributor.orcidJones, Peter [0000-0002-0387-880X]
dc.contributor.orcidMurray, Graham [0000-0001-8296-1742]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idEC FP7 CP (279143)

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License