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dc.contributor.authorBaig, Abiyaden
dc.contributor.authorWeinert, Lucyen
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Sarah Een
dc.contributor.authorHowell, Kate Jen
dc.contributor.authorChaudhuri, Roy Ren
dc.contributor.authorWang, Jinhongen
dc.contributor.authorHolden, Matthew TGen
dc.contributor.authorParkhill, Julianen
dc.contributor.authorLangford, Paul Ren
dc.contributor.authorRycroft, Andrewen
dc.contributor.authorWren, Brendan Wen
dc.contributor.authorTucker, Alexanderen
dc.contributor.authorMaskell, Duncanen
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-13T14:41:30Z
dc.date.available2015-10-13T14:41:30Z
dc.date.issued2015-11-04en
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Microbiology-Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology 2015, . 6:1191. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01191en
dc.identifier.issn1664-302X
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/251435
dc.description.abstractStreptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60) did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70), of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by a Longer and Larger (LoLa) grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant numbers BB/G020744/1, BB/G019177/1, BB/G019274/1 and BB/G003203/1), the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and Zoetis, awarded to the Bacterial Respiratory Diseases of Pigs-1 Technology (BRaDP1T) consortium§.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherFrontiers
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectStreptococcus suisen
dc.subjectDivergenten
dc.subjectGenomeen
dc.subjectPhylogenyen
dc.subjectMLSTen
dc.subjectVirulenceen
dc.subjectCapsuleen
dc.subjectRecombinationen
dc.titleWhole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suisen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Frontiers via http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01191en
prism.number1911en
prism.publicationDate2015en
prism.publicationNameFrontiers in Microbiology-Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiologyen
prism.volume6en
dc.rioxxterms.funderBBSRC
dc.rioxxterms.projectidBB/G020744/1
dc.rioxxterms.projectidBB/G019177/1
dc.rioxxterms.projectidBB/G019274/1
dc.rioxxterms.projectidBB/G003203/1
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-10-12en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.3389/fmicb.2015.01191en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-11-04en
dc.contributor.orcidWeinert, Lucy [0000-0002-9279-6012]
dc.contributor.orcidParkhill, Julian [0000-0002-7069-5958]
dc.contributor.orcidTucker, Alexander [0000-0003-0062-0843]
dc.contributor.orcidMaskell, Duncan [0000-0002-5065-653X]
dc.identifier.eissn1664-302X
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idBBSRC (BB/G019274/1)
pubs.funder-project-idBBSRC (BB/L003902/1)


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Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License