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dc.contributor.authorJones, Eppieen
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez-Fortes, Gloriaen
dc.contributor.authorConnell, Sarahen
dc.contributor.authorSiska, Veronikaen
dc.contributor.authorEriksson, Andersen
dc.contributor.authorMartiniano, Ruien
dc.contributor.authorMcLaughlin, Russell Len
dc.contributor.authorGallego, Llorente Marcosen
dc.contributor.authorCassidy, Lara Men
dc.contributor.authorGamba, Cristinaen
dc.contributor.authorMeshveliani, Tengizen
dc.contributor.authorBar-Yosef, Oferen
dc.contributor.authorMüller, Werneren
dc.contributor.authorBelfer-Cohen, Annaen
dc.contributor.authorMatskevich, Zinovien
dc.contributor.authorJakeli, Ninoen
dc.contributor.authorHigham, Thomas FGen
dc.contributor.authorCurrat, Mathiasen
dc.contributor.authorLordkipanidze, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorHofreiter, Michaelen
dc.contributor.authorManica, Andreaen
dc.contributor.authorPinhasi, Ronen
dc.contributor.authorBradley, Daniel Gen
dc.identifier.citationNature Communications 2015, 6:8912. doi:10.1038/ncomms9912en
dc.description.abstractWe extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant to R.P. (ERC-2010-StG 263441). D.B., M.H and AM. were also supported by the ERC (295729-CodeX, 310763-GeneFlow and 647787-LocalAdaptation respectively). The National Geographic Global Exploration Fund funded fieldwork in Satsurblia Cave l from April 2013 to February 2014 (grant- GEFNE78–13). V.S. was supported by a scholarship from the Gates Cambridge Trust and M.G.L. by a BBSRC DTP studentship. C.G. was supported by the Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS) ERC Support Programme and the Marie-Curie Intra-European Fellowships (FP7-IEF-328024). R.M. was funded by the BEAN project of the Marie Curie ITN (289966) and L.C. by the Irish Research Council (GOIPG/2013/1219). R.L.M. was funded by the ALS Association of America (2284) and Fondation Thierry Latran (ALSIBD). M.C. was supported by Swiss NSF grant 31003A_156853. We acknowledge Shota Rusataveli Georgian National Science Foundation as well as the DJEI/DES/SFI/HEA Irish Centre for High-End Computing (ICHEC) for the provision of computational facilities and Science Foundation Ireland (12/ERC/B2227) for provision of sequencing facilities. We thank Valeria Mattiangeli and Matthew D. Teasdale for their assistance.
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.titleUpper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasiansen
dc.description.versionThis is the final version of the article. It was first available from NPG via
prism.publicationNameNature Communicationsen
dc.contributor.orcidEriksson, Anders [0000-0003-3436-3726]
dc.contributor.orcidManica, Andrea [0000-0003-1895-450X]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idBBSRC (BB/H005854/1)
pubs.funder-project-idECH2020 EUROPEAN RESEARCH COUNCIL (ERC) (647787)

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Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales