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dc.contributor.authorLabonte, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorClemente, Christofer Jen
dc.contributor.authorDittrich, Alexen
dc.contributor.authorKuo, Chi-Yunen
dc.contributor.authorCrosby, Alfred Jen
dc.contributor.authorIrschick, Duncan Jen
dc.contributor.authorFederle, Walteren
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-06T18:47:50Z
dc.date.available2016-01-06T18:47:50Z
dc.date.issued2016-01-19en
dc.identifier.citationLabonte et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016) Vol. 113 Issue 5, pp. 1297-1302. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1519459113 .en
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/253125
dc.description.abstractOrganismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level, and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads’ adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe are sincerely grateful to all our colleagues who readily shared published and unpublished data with us: Aaron M. Bauer, Jon Barnes, Niall Crawford, Thomas Endlein, Hanns Hagen Goetzke, Thomas E. Macrini, Anthony P. Russell & Joanna M. Smith. We also thank Casey Gilman, Dylan Briggs, Irina Showalter, Dan King and Mike Imburgia for their assistance with the collection of gecko toepad data. This study was supported by research grants from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/I008667/1) to WF, the Human Frontier Science Programme (RGP0034/2012) to DI, AJC and WF, the Denman Baynes Senior Research Fellowship to DL and a Discovery Early Career Research Fellowship (DE120101503) to CJC.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNational Academy of Sciences
dc.titleExtreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbingen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the National Academy of Sciences via http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1073/pnas.1519459113en
prism.endingPage1302
prism.publicationDate2016en
prism.publicationNameProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen
prism.startingPage1297
prism.volume113en
dc.rioxxterms.funderBBSRC
dc.rioxxterms.projectidBB/I008667/1
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1073/pnas.1519459113en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-01-19en
dc.contributor.orcidLabonte, David [0000-0002-1952-8732]
dc.contributor.orcidFederle, Walter [0000-0002-6375-3005]
dc.identifier.eissn1091-6490
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idBBSRC (BB/I008667/1)
pubs.funder-project-idBBSRC (BB/E004156/1)
pubs.funder-project-idHuman Frontier Science Program (HFSP) (RGP0034/2012)
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2016-07-20


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