Adverse Associations of Car Time with Markers of Cardio-Metabolic Risk
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad
Tanamas, Stephanie K
Dunstan, David W
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Sugiyama, T., Wijndaele, K., Koohsari, M. J., Tanamas, S. K., Dunstan, D. W., & Owen, N. (2016). Adverse Associations of Car Time with Markers of Cardio-Metabolic Risk. Preventive Medicine, 83 26-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.11.029
Objective: To examine associations of time spent sitting in cars with markers of cardio-metabolic risk in Australian adults. Method: Data were from 2800 participants (age range: 34–65) in the 2011–12 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Self-reported time spent in cars was categorized into four groups: ≤ 15 min/day; > 15 to ≤ 30 min/day; > 30 to ≤ 60 min/day; and > 60 min/day. Markers of cardio-metabolic risk were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, a clustered cardio-metabolic risk score, and having the metabolic syndrome or not. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses examined associations of car time with each cardio-metabolic risk outcome, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral variables and medication use for blood pressure and cholesterol/triglycerides. Results: Compared to spending 15 min/day or less in cars, spending more than 1 h/day in cars was significantly associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, after adjusting for socio-demographic attributes and potentially relevant behaviors including leisure-time physical activity and dietary intake. Gender interactions showed car time to be associated with higher BMI in men only. Conclusions: Prolonged time spent sitting in cars, in particular over 1 h/day, was associated with higher total and central adiposity and a more-adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile. Further studies, ideally using objective measures of sitting time in cars and prospective designs, are needed to confirm the impact of car use on cardio-metabolic disease risk.
The AusDiab study was co-coordinated by the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute. We gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance given by: K. Anstey, B. Atkins, B. Balkau, E. Barr, A. Cameron, S. Chadban, M. de Courten, A. Kavanagh, D. Magliano, S. Murray, K. Polkinghorne, J. Shaw, T. Welborn, P. Zimmet and all the study participants. For funding or logistical support, we are grateful to: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC: #233200, #1007544), Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Abbott Australasia Pty Ltd, Alphapharm Pty Ltd, Amgen Australia, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, City Health Centre-Diabetes Service-Canberra, Department of Health and Community Services – Northern Territory, Department of Health and Human Services – Tasmania, Department of Health – New South Wales, Department of Health – Western Australia, Department of Health – South Australia, Department of Human Services – Victoria, Diabetes Australia, Diabetes Australia Northern Territory, Eli Lilly Australia, Estate of the Late Edward Wilson, GlaxoSmithKline, Jack Brockhoff Foundation, Janssen-Cilag, Kidney Health Australia, Marian & FH Flack Trust, Menzies Research Institute, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Pty Ltd, Pratt Foundation, Queensland Health, Roche Diagnostics Australia, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Sanofi Aventis, and sanofi-synthelabo. Wijndaele was supported by a BHF Intermediate Basic Science Research Fellowship #FS/12/58/29709. Koohsari was supported by NHMRC Program Grant #569940. Dunstan was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Senior Research Fellowship (#1078360). Owen was supported by NHMRC ProgramGrant #569940, NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship#1003960, and NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence#1057608. Authors from Baker IDI were supported by the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program.
British Heart Foundation (FS/12/58/29709)
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.11.029
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/253221