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dc.contributor.authorKalia, Priyaen
dc.contributor.authorBrooks, Rogeren
dc.contributor.authorKinrade, Stephen Den
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, David Jen
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Andrew Pen
dc.contributor.authorRushton, Neilen
dc.contributor.authorJugdaohsingh, Ravinen
dc.identifier.citationK. P. Brooks et al. PLOS ONE (2016). volume 11, issue 2: e0144780. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144780en
dc.description.abstractSilicon (Si) is suggested to be an important/essential nutrient for bone and connective tissue health. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) has silicate ions incorporated into its lattice structure and was developed to improve attachment to bone and increase new bone formation. Here we investigated the direct adsorption of silicate species onto an HA coated surface as a cost effective method of incorporating silicon on to HA surfaces for improved implant osseointegration, and determined changes in surface characteristics and osteoblast cell adhesion. Plasma-sprayed HA-coated stainless steel discs were incubated in silica dispersions of different concentrations (0–42 mM Si), at neutral pH for 12 h. Adsorbed Si was confirmed by XPS analysis and quantified by ICP-OES analysis following release from the HA surface. Changes in surface characteristics were determined by AFM and measurement of surface wettability. Osteoblast cell adhesion was determined by vinculin plaque staining. Maximum Si adsorption to the HA coated disc occurred after incubation in the 6 mM silica dispersion and decreased progressively with higher silica concentrations, while no adsorption was observed with dispersions below 6 mM Si. Comparison of the Si dispersions that produced the highest and lowest Si adsorption to the HA surface, by TEM-based analysis, revealed an abundance of small amorphous nanosilica species (NSP) of ~1.5 nm in diameter in the 6 mM Si dispersion, with much fewer and larger NSP in the 42 mM Si dispersions. ²⁹Si-NMR confirmed that the NSPs in the 6 mM silica dispersion were polymeric and similar in composition to the larger NSPs in the 42 mM Si dispersion, suggesting that the latter were aggregates of the former. Amorphous NSP adsorbed from the 6 mM dispersion on to a HA-coated disc surface increased the surface’s water contact angle by 53°, whereas that adsorbed from the 42 mM dispersion decreased the contact angle by 18°, indicating increased and decreased hydrophobicity, respectively. AFM showed an increase in surface roughness of the 6 mM Si treated surface, which correlated well with an increase in number of vinculin plaques. These findings suggest that NSP of the right size (relative to charge) adsorb readily to the HA surface, changing the surface characteristics and, thus, improving osteoblast cell adhesion. This treatment provides a simple way to modify plasma-coated HA surfaces that may enable improved osseointegration of bone implants.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors acknowledge the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) and the Medical Research Council, grant number MC_US_A090_0008/Unit Programme number U1059, www., to RJ; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK), grant number EP/ F019823/1 ( to PK, DJM; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK), grant number EP/K023853/1 ( "Leeds EPSRC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Equipment Facility (LENNF)" to APB and PK. Orthopaedic Research UK Grant "Drug Delivery of Silicon from the Furlong HA-C Hip" ( to PK, RAB. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.subjectsurface treatmentsen
dc.subjectstainless steelen
dc.subjectatomic force microscopyen
dc.subjectNMR spectroscopyen
dc.titleAdsorption of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles onto Hydroxyapatite Surfaces Differentially Alters Surfaces Properties and Adhesion of Human Osteoblast Cellsen
dc.description.versionThis is the final version of the article. It first appeared from PLOS via
prism.publicationNamePLOS ONEen
dc.rioxxterms.projectidMC_US_A090_0008/Unit Programme number U1059
dc.rioxxterms.projectidEP/ F019823/1
dc.contributor.orcidJugdaohsingh, Ravin [0000-0001-8074-2992]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen

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Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales