Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans
Tan, Chong Yew
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Langeveld, M., Tan, C. Y., Soeters, M., Virtue, S., Watson, L., Murgatroyd, P., Chatterjee, K., & et al. (2016). Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans. Endocrine Connections, 5 65-73. https://doi.org/10.1530/EC-16-0004
Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, when appetite and energy intake do not increase at the same time. We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold and thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18 degrees centigrade (mild cold) or 24 degrees centigrade (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 hours. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and every 30 minutes during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. We could replicate the cold induced increase in REE. But no differences in hunger, food intake or satiety after mild cold exposure compared to thermoneutrality were detected. After longer cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated to thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated to the increase in energy expenditure. In conclusion, short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated to the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover there is great between subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insight on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.
cold, thermogenesis, hunger
The study was funded by NIHR, BRC Seed Fund, individual grants: ML and MS: Marie Curie Fellowship, CYT: Welcome Trust Fellowship, SV: MRC, BHF and BBSRC, AVP: BBSRC.
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1530/EC-16-0004
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/253790
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