Charge quantization from a number operator
Physics Letters B
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Furey, C. (2015). Charge quantization from a number operator. Physics Letters B, 742 195-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2015.01.023
We explain how an unexpected algebraic structure, the division algebras, can be seen to underlie a generation of quarks and leptons. From this new vantage point, electrons and quarks are simply excitations from the neutrino, which formally plays the role of a vacuum state. Using the ladder operators which exist within the system, we build a number operator in the usual way. It turns out that this number operator, divided by 3, mirrors the behaviour of electric charge. As a result, we see that electric charge is quantized because number operators can only take on integer values. Finally, we show that a simple hermitian form, built from these ladder operators, results uniquely in the nine generators of SUc(3) and Uem(1). This gives a direct route to the two unbroken gauge symmetries of the standard model.
This research was supported by the Templeton Foundation, and also in part by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2015.01.023
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/254683
Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/
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