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dc.contributor.authorNaughton, Felix
dc.contributor.authorHopewell, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorLathia, Neal
dc.contributor.authorSchalbroeck, Rik
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Chloë
dc.contributor.authorMascolo, Cecilia
dc.contributor.authorMcEwen, Andy
dc.contributor.authorSutton, Stephen
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-21T10:28:00Z
dc.date.available2016-06-21T10:28:00Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-16
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/256403
dc.descriptionThis is the final version of the article. It first appeared from JMIR Publications via http://mhealth.jmir.org/2016/3/e106/en
dc.description.abstract${\bf Background:}$ A major cause of lapse and relapse to smoking during a quit attempt is craving triggered by cues from a smoker's immediate environment. To help smokers address these cue-induced cravings when attempting to quit, we have developed a context aware smoking cessation app (Q Sense) which uses a smoking episode reporting system combined with location sensing and geofencing to tailor support content and trigger support delivery in real time. ${\bf Objectives:}$ We sought to: 1) assess smokers’ compliance with reporting their smoking in real time and identify reasons for non-compliance, 2) assess the app's accuracy in identifying user-specific high risk locations for smoking, 3) explore the feasibility and user-perspective of geofence-triggered support and 4) identify any technological issues or privacy concerns. ${\bf Methods:}$ An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used where data collected by the app informed semi-structured interviews. Participants were smokers who owned an Android smartphone and were willing to set a quit date within one month (N=15). App data included smoking reports with context information and geolocation, End of Day (EoD) surveys of smoking beliefs and behaviour, support message ratings and app interaction data. Interviews were undertaken and analysed thematically (n=13). Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately and findings presented sequentially. ${\bf Results:}$ Three participants (20%) discontinued use of the app prematurely. Pre-quit date, the mean number of smoking reports received was 38 (SD 21) per participant or 2 (SD 2) per day per participant. EoD surveys indicated that participants underreported smoking on at least 56% of days. Geolocation was collected in 97% of smoking reports with a mean accuracy of 32 (SD 17) meters. Five out of nine (56%) eligible participants received geofence-triggered support. Interaction data indicated that 50% of geofence-triggered message notifications were tapped within 30 minutes of being generated, resulting in delivery of a support message, and 79% of delivered messages were rated by participants. Qualitative findings identified multiple reasons for non-compliance in reporting smoking, most notably due to environmental constraints and forgetting. Participants verified the app’s identification of their smoking locations, were largely positive about the value of geofence-triggered support and had no privacy concerns about the data collected by the app. ${\bf Conclusions:}$ User-initiated self-report is feasible for training a cessation app about an individual’s smoking behaviour although underreporting is likely. Geofencing was a reliable and accurate method of identifying smoking locations, and geofence-triggered support was regarded positively by participants.en
dc.description.sponsorshipMedical Research Council (Grant ID: RG73592)
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherJournal of Medical Internet Research Publicationsen
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
dc.subjectsmartphone appen
dc.subjectsmoking cessationen
dc.subjectcontext-sensingen
dc.subjecttailoringen
dc.subjectgeofenceen
dc.subjectJust-In-time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI)en
dc.subjectEcological Momentary Interventionen
dc.subjectcravingen
dc.titleA Context-Sensing Mobile Phone App (Q Sense) for Smoking Cessation: A Mixed-Methods Studyen
dc.typeArticleen
prism.issueIdentifier3
prism.numbere106
prism.publicationNameJMIR mHealth and uHealthen
prism.volume4
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.346
pubs.declined2017-10-11T13:54:43.734+0100
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-05-20
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.2196/mhealth.5787
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
cam.orpheus.successThu Jan 30 12:58:03 GMT 2020 - The item has an open VoR version.*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2100-01-01


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Attribution 2.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 International