Fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk factors in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
European journal of clinical nutrition
Nature Publishing Group
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Lamb, M., Griffin, S., Sharp, S., & Cooper, A. (2017). Fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk factors in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.. European journal of clinical nutrition, 71 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.180
Background/objectives: The cardiovascular benefit of increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake following diagnosis of diabetes remains unknown. We aimed to describe how quantity and variety of F&V intake, and plasma vitamin C, change after diagnosis of diabetes and examine if these changes are associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: 401 individuals with screen-detected diabetes from the ADDITION-Cambridge study were followed-up over five-years. F&V intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and plasma vitamin C at baseline, one- and five-years. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations of changes in quantity and variety of F&V intake, and plasma vitamin C, with cardiovascular risk factors and a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (CCMR), where a higher score indicates higher risk. Results: F&V intake increased in year one but decreased by year five whereas variety remained unchanged. Plasma vitamin C increased at one- and five-years. Each SD increase (250g between baseline and one-year and 270g between one- and five-years) in F&V intake was associated with lower waist circumference (-0.92 (95% CI:-1.57, -0.27) cm), HbA1c (-0.11 (-0.20, -0.03) %) and CCMR (-0.04 (-0.08, -0.01)) at one-year and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.04 (0.01, 0.06) mmol/l) at five-years. Increased plasma vitamin C (per SD, 22.5µmol/l) was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.04 (0.01, 0.06) mmol/l) and lower CCMR (-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03)) between one- and five-years. Conclusions: Increases in F&V quantity following diagnosis of diabetes are associated with lower cardiovascular risk factors. Health promotion interventions might highlight the importance of increasing, and maintaining increases in, F&V intake for improved cardiometabolic health in patients with diabetes.
The ADDITION-Cambridge study was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant G061895), the Medical Research Council (grant G0001164), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment Programme (grant 08/116/300), National Health Service R&D support funding (including the Primary Care Research and Diabetes Research Networks). SJG received support from the Department of Health NIHR Programme Grant funding scheme (grant RP-PG-0606-1259). Bio-Rad provided equipment for HbA1c testing during the screening phase.
NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (NETSCC) (HTA/08/116/300)
NIHR Central Commissioning Facility (NIHRDH-RP-PG-0606-1259)
Wellcome Trust (061895/Z/00/Z)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.180
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/260323
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