Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev
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Otten, J., Stomby, A., Waling, M., Isaksson, A., Tellström, A., Lundin-Olsson, L., Brage, S., et al. (2016). Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.. Diabetes Metab Res Rev https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2828
BACKGROUND: Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). RESULTS: For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: -6.6, -4.1; $p$ < 0.001) in the PD group and by 6.7 kg (-8.2, -5.3; $p$ < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved by 45% in the PD ($p$ < 0.001) and PD-EX ($p$ < 0.001) groups. HbA1c decreased by 0.9% (-1.2, -0.6; $p$ < 0.001) in the PD group and 1.1% (-1.7, -0.7; $p$ < 0.01) in the PD-EX group. Leptin decreased by 62% ($p$ < 0.001) in the PD group and 42% ($p$ < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Maximum oxygen uptake increased by 0.2 L/min (0.0, 0.3) in the PD-EX group, and remained unchanged in the PD group ($p$ < 0.01 for the difference between intervention groups). Male participants decreased lean mass by 2.6 kg (-3.6, -1.3) in the PD group and by 1.2 kg (-1.3, 1.0) in the PD-EX group ($p$ < 0.05 for the difference between intervention groups). CONCLUSIONS: A Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paleolithic diet, diet intervention, exercise, glycosylated haemoglobin A, insulin sensitivity, leptin, type 2 diabetes
Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation (Grant ID: 20120450), King Gustav V and Queen Victoria’s Foundation, The Swedish Diabetes Research Foundation (Grant ID: 2014-096), County Council of Västerbotten (Grant ID: VLL-460481), Umeå University Sweden
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2828
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/260648