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dc.contributor.authorLotta, Lucaen
dc.contributor.authorScott, Roberten
dc.contributor.authorSharp, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorBurgess, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorLuan, Jian'anen
dc.contributor.authorTillin, Ten
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, AFen
dc.contributor.authorImamura, Fumiakien
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Isobelen
dc.contributor.authorPerry, Johnen
dc.contributor.authorMarney, Len
dc.contributor.authorKoulman, Alberten
dc.contributor.authorKaroly, EDen
dc.contributor.authorForouhi, Nitaen
dc.contributor.authorSjögren, RJOen
dc.contributor.authorNäslund, Een
dc.contributor.authorZierath, JRen
dc.contributor.authorKrook, Aen
dc.contributor.authorSavage, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorGriffin, Julianen
dc.contributor.authorChaturvedi, Nen
dc.contributor.authorHingorani, ADen
dc.contributor.authorKhaw, Kay-Teeen
dc.contributor.authorBarroso, Inesen
dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, MIen
dc.contributor.authorO'Rahilly, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorWareham, Nicholasen
dc.contributor.authorLangenberg, Claudiaen
dc.description.abstract$\textbf{BACKGROUND}$: Higher circulating levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; i.e., isoleucine, leucine, and valine) are strongly associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk, but it is not known whether this association is causal. We undertook large-scale human genetic analyses to address this question. $\textbf{METHODS AND FINDINGS}$: Genome-wide studies of BCAA levels in 16,596 individuals revealed five genomic regions associated at genome-wide levels of significance (p < 5 × 10-8). The strongest signal was 21 kb upstream of the PPM1K gene (beta in standard deviations [SDs] of leucine per allele = 0.08, p = 3.9 × 10-25), encoding an activator of the mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) responsible for the rate-limiting step in BCAA catabolism. In another analysis, in up to 47,877 cases of type 2 diabetes and 267,694 controls, a genetically predicted difference of 1 SD in amino acid level was associated with an odds ratio for type 2 diabetes of 1.44 (95% CI 1.26-1.65, p = 9.5 × 10-8) for isoleucine, 1.85 (95% CI 1.41-2.42, p = 7.3 × 10-6) for leucine, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.28-1.84, p = 4.2 × 10-6) for valine. Estimates were highly consistent with those from prospective observational studies of the association between BCAA levels and incident type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis of 1,992 cases and 4,319 non-cases. Metabolome-wide association analyses of BCAA-raising alleles revealed high specificity to the BCAA pathway and an accumulation of metabolites upstream of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid oxidation, consistent with reduced BCKD activity. Limitations of this study are that, while the association of genetic variants appeared highly specific, the possibility of pleiotropic associations cannot be entirely excluded. Similar to other complex phenotypes, genetic scores used in the study captured a limited proportion of the heritability in BCAA levels. Therefore, it is possible that only some of the mechanisms that increase BCAA levels or affect BCAA metabolism are implicated in type 2 diabetes. $\textbf{CONCLUSIONS}$: Evidence from this large-scale human genetic and metabolomic study is consistent with a causal role of BCAA metabolism in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.
dc.description.sponsorshipMRC Epidemiology Unit, Fenland study, EPIC-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk case-cohort study funding: this study was funded by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council through grants MC_UU_12015/1, MC_UU_12015/5, MC_PC_13046, MC_PC_13048 and MR/L00002/1. We acknowledge support from the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre. The research leading to these results has received support from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under EMIF grant agreement number 115372, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) and EFPIA companies’ in kind contribution. EPIC-InterAct Study funding: funding for the InterAct project was provided by the EU FP6 programme (grant number LSHM_CT_2006_037197). MRC Human Nutrition Research funding: This research was supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UP_A090_1006) and Cambridge Lipidomics Biomarker Research Initiative (G0800783). The SABRE study was funded at baseline by the UK Medical Research Council, Diabetes UK and the British Heart Foundation and at follow-up by a programme grant from the Wellcome Trust (WT082464) and British Heart Foundation (SP/07/001/23603); Diabetes UK funded the metabolomics analyses (13/0004774). RJOS, EN, JRZ and AK received funding from the Swedish Research Council, Stockholm County Council, Novo Nordisk Foundation and Diabetes Wellness. DBS is supported by the Wellcome Trust grant number 107064. MIM is a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator and is supported by the following grants from the Wellcome Trust: 090532 and 098381. IB is supported by the Wellcome Trust grant WT098051.
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.titleGenetic Predisposition to an Impaired Metabolism of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomisation Analysisen
prism.publicationNamePLoS Medicineen
dc.contributor.orcidSharp, Stephen [0000-0003-2375-1440]
dc.contributor.orcidBurgess, Stephen [0000-0001-5365-8760]
dc.contributor.orcidLuan, Jian'an [0000-0003-3137-6337]
dc.contributor.orcidImamura, Fumiaki [0000-0002-6841-8396]
dc.contributor.orcidPerry, John [0000-0001-6483-3771]
dc.contributor.orcidKoulman, Albert [0000-0001-9998-051X]
dc.contributor.orcidForouhi, Nita [0000-0002-5041-248X]
dc.contributor.orcidSavage, David [0000-0002-7857-7032]
dc.contributor.orcidGriffin, Julian [0000-0003-1336-7744]
dc.contributor.orcidKhaw, Kay-Tee [0000-0002-8802-2903]
dc.contributor.orcidBarroso, Ines [0000-0001-5800-4520]
dc.contributor.orcidO'Rahilly, Stephen [0000-0003-2199-4449]
dc.contributor.orcidWareham, Nicholas [0000-0003-1422-2993]
dc.contributor.orcidLangenberg, Claudia [0000-0002-5017-7344]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12015/1)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (095515/Z/11/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (100574/Z/12/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12012/5)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12015/5)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_PC_13046)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_PC_13048)
pubs.funder-project-idMEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/L00002/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12015/2)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/P011705/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/N003284/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/P01836X/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G1000143)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G0401527)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/L003120/1)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (204623/Z/16/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) FP7 Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) (1153372)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G0800270)
pubs.funder-project-idWELLCOME TRUST (107064/Z/15/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Council (MC_EX_MR/L100002/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Council (MC_PC_13030)
pubs.funder-project-idBritish Heart Foundation (RG/08/014/24067)
pubs.funder-project-idBritish Heart Foundation (RG/13/13/30194)
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Council (MC_U106179472)
cam.orpheus.successThu Jan 30 12:56:38 GMT 2020 - The item has an open VoR version.*

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International