dc.contributor.author Kochanek, CS en dc.contributor.author Fraser, Morgan en dc.contributor.author Adams, SM en dc.contributor.author Sukhbold, T en dc.contributor.author Prieto, JL en dc.contributor.author Muller, T en dc.contributor.author Bock, G en dc.contributor.author Brown, JS en dc.contributor.author Dong, S en dc.contributor.author Holoien, TW-S en dc.contributor.author Khan, R en dc.contributor.author Shappee, BJ en dc.contributor.author Stanek, KZ en dc.date.accessioned 2017-04-21T09:11:05Z dc.date.available 2017-04-21T09:11:05Z dc.date.issued 2017-06-01 en dc.identifier.issn 0035-8711 dc.identifier.uri https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263741 dc.description.abstract We identify a pre-explosion counterpart to the nearby Type IIP supernova ASASSN-16fq (SN 2016cok) in archival $\textit{Hubble Space Telescope}$ data. The source appears to be a blend of several stars that prevents obtaining accurate photometry. However, with reasonable assumptions about the stellar temperature and extinction, the progenitor almost certainly had an initial mass $M_*$ $\lesssim$ 17 M$_\odot$, and was most likely in the mass range of $M_*$ = 8–12 M$_\odot$. Observations once ASASSN-16fq has faded will have no difficulty accurately determining the properties of the progenitor. In 8 yr of Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) data, no significant progenitor variability is detected to rms limits of roughly 0.03 mag. Of the six nearby supernova (SN) with constraints on the low-level variability, SN 1987A, SN 1993J, SN 2008cn, SN 2011dh, SN 2013ej and ASASSN-16fq, only the slowly fading progenitor of SN 2011dh showed clear evidence of variability. Excluding SN 1987A, the 90 per cent confidence limit implied by these sources on the number of outbursts over the last decade before the SN that last longer than 0.1 yr (full width at half-maximum) and are brighter than $M_R$ < −8 mag is approximately $N_\text{out}$ $\lesssim$ 3. Our continuing LBT monitoring programme will steadily improve constraints on pre-SN progenitor variability at amplitudes far lower than achievable by SN surveys. dc.description.sponsorship CSK, KZS, JSB, SMA and TWSH are supported by NSF grants AST-1515876 and AST-1515927. BJS is supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HF-51348.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. TW-SH is supported by the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, grant number DE-FG02- 97ER25308. TS is partly supported by NSF grant PHY-1404311 to J. Beacom. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. Support for JLP is provided in part by FONDECYT through the grant 1151445 and by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism’s Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. SD is supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program ‘The Emergence of Cosmological Structures’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB09000000) and NSFC project 11573003. Some of the observations were carried out using the LBT at Mt Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max–Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA, and in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA HST obtained at the Space Telescope Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Some observations were obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). dc.language.iso en en dc.publisher Oxford University Press dc.subject stars: massive en dc.subject supernovae: general en dc.subject supernovae: individual: SN 2016cok en dc.subject galaxies: individual: M 66 en dc.title Supernova progenitors, their variability and the Type IIP Supernova ASASSN-16fq in M66 en dc.type Article prism.endingPage 3360 prism.issueIdentifier 3 en prism.publicationDate 2017 en prism.publicationName Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society en prism.startingPage 3347 prism.volume 467 en dc.identifier.doi 10.17863/CAM.9107 dcterms.dateAccepted 2017-01-31 en rioxxterms.versionofrecord 10.1093/mnras/stx291 en rioxxterms.version VoR en rioxxterms.licenseref.uri http://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved en rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate 2017-06-01 en dc.contributor.orcid Fraser, Morgan [0000-0003-2191-1674] dc.identifier.eissn 1365-2966 dc.publisher.url http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx291 en rioxxterms.type Journal Article/Review en cam.issuedOnline 2017-02-24 en dc.identifier.url http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx291 en cam.orpheus.success Thu Jan 30 12:54:01 GMT 2020 - The item has an open VoR version. * rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate 2100-01-01
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