Theory and application of reverberated direct and indirect noise
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Cambridge University Press
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Rolland, E., De Domenico, F., & Hochgreb, S. (2017). Theory and application of reverberated direct and indirect noise. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 819 435-464. https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.10210
The generation of a temperature disturbance in a flow is accompanied by the production of acoustic waves (direct noise) and of an entropy perturbation. If this entropy perturbation is accelerated or decelerated (as is the case through a nozzle or flow restriction), additional acoustic waves are generated (indirect noise). Several studies have demonstrated this mechanism in controlled conditions by using entropy wave generators, in which entropy waves are generated and convected through a nozzle, leading to direct and indirect noise. An analytical analysis of the direct and indirect noise produced by the generation and acceleration of entropy waves in a reflective environment is presented. The effect of reverberation (repeated acoustic reflections) on low-frequency perturbations (characteristic of entropy wave generators) is determined analytically. These results are then implemented in a set of limit cases, showing the limit behaviours of such systems. The analytical model is applied to the case of the Cambridge entropy wave generator experiment, in which entropy waves are generated by an electric heater and accelerated through a subsonic orifice plate. Due to the clear time separation of direct and indirect noise in the experimental results, direct and indirect noise transfer functions can be extracted from the experimental data for the first time and compared directly with existing theoretical models. The backward-propagating indirect noise generated at an orifice plate is shown to be significantly higher than predicted by existing theoretical models for isentropic nozzles.
This work was supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant EP/K02924X/1. E.O.R. is supported by an EPSRC DTA studentship (University of Cambridge), and F.D.D. is supported by the Honorary Vice-Chancellor’s Award and a Qualcomm/DTA Studentship.
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This record's DOI: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.10210
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/264626
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