ASXL gain-of-function truncation mutants: defective and dysregulated forms of a natural ribosomal frameshifting product?
Dinan, Adam M
Atkins, John F
Firth, Andrew E
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Dinan, A. M., Atkins, J. F., & Firth, A. E. (2017). ASXL gain-of-function truncation mutants: defective and dysregulated forms of a natural ribosomal frameshifting product?. [Journal Article]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13062-017-0195-0
Abstract Background Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is a gene expression mechanism which enables the translation of two N-terminally coincident, C-terminally distinct protein products from a single mRNA. Many viruses utilize PRF to control or regulate gene expression, but very few phylogenetically conserved examples are known in vertebrate genes. Additional sex combs-like (ASXL) genes 1 and 2 encode important epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory proteins that control the expression of homeotic genes during key developmental stages. Here we describe an ~150-codon overlapping ORF (termed TF) in ASXL1 and ASXL2 that, with few exceptions, is conserved throughout vertebrates. Results Conservation of the TF ORF, strong suppression of synonymous site variation in the overlap region, and the completely conserved presence of an EH[N/S]Y motif (a known binding site for Host Cell Factor-1, HCF-1, an epigenetic regulatory factor), all indicate that TF is a protein-coding sequence. A highly conserved UCC_UUU_CGU sequence (identical to the known site of +1 ribosomal frameshifting for influenza virus PA-X expression) occurs at the 5′ end of the region of enhanced synonymous site conservation in ASXL1. Similarly, a highly conserved RG_GUC_UCU sequence (identical to a known site of −2 ribosomal frameshifting for arterivirus nsp2TF expression) occurs at the 5′ end of the region of enhanced synonymous site conservation in ASXL2. Conclusions Due to a lack of appropriate splice forms, or initiation sites, the most plausible mechanism for translation of the ASXL1 and 2 TF regions is ribosomal frameshifting, resulting in a transframe fusion of the N-terminal half of ASXL1 or 2 to the TF product, termed ASXL-TF. Truncation or frameshift mutants of ASXL are linked to myeloid malignancies and genetic diseases, such as Bohring-Opitz syndrome, likely at least in part as a result of gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects. Our hypothesis now indicates that these disease-associated mutant forms represent overexpressed defective versions of ASXL-TF. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Laurence Hurst and Eugene Koonin.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13062-017-0195-0
This record's DOI: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.13775
Rights Holder: The Author(s).