Intakes and sources of dietary sugars and their association with metabolic and inflammatory markers.
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)
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O'Connor, L., Imamura, F., Brage, S., Griffin, S., Wareham, N., & Forouhi, N. (2018). Intakes and sources of dietary sugars and their association with metabolic and inflammatory markers.. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 37 (4), 1313-1322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.030
Background & aims Associations of dietary sugars with metabolic and inflammatory markers may vary according to the source of the sugars. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary sugars from different sources [beverages (liquids), foods (solids), extrinsic (free) or intrinsic (non-free)] with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of adults in the East of England (n = 9678). Sugar intakes were estimated using food frequency questionnaires. Fasting glycated haemoglobin, glucose, insulin, and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) were measured and indices of metabolic risk were derived (homeostatic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR and metabolic risk z-score). Results In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders including BMI and TEI, sugars from liquids were positively associated with ln-CRP [b-coefficient (95%CI), 0.14 (0.05,0.22) per 10%TEI] and metabolic risk z-score [0.13 (0.07,0.18)]. Free sugars were positively associated with ln-HOMA-IR [0.05 (0.03,0.08)] and metabolic risk z-score [0.09 (0.06,0.12)]. Sugars from solids were not associated with any outcome. Among major dietary contributors to intakes (g/d), sugars in fruit, vegetables, dairy products/egg dishes, cakes/biscuits/confectionary and squash/juice drinks were not associated, but sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal was significantly positively associated with all outcomes. Sugars in 100% juice [0.16 (0.06,0.25) per 10%TEI] and other non-alcoholic beverages [0.13 (0.03,0.23)] were positively associated with metabolic risk z-score. Conclusion Higher intakes of sugars from non-alcoholic beverages and sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal were associated with glycaemia and inflammatory markers. Sugars from solids were not associated, irrespective of whether they were intrinsic or extrinsic. Positive associations of free sugars were largely explained by contribution of beverages to intake.
Humans, Inflammation, Blood Glucose, Diet, Cross-Sectional Studies, Energy Intake, Eating, Adult, Middle Aged, England, Female, Male, Biomarkers, Dietary Sugars
The Fenland Study was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council. Support from Medical Research Council programmesMC_UU_12015/1 and MC_UU_12015/5 is acknowledged.
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0512-10135)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.030
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/269655