Dynamic expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 dioxygenases in mouse and human placentas throughout gestation.
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Rakoczy, J., Padmanabhan, N., Krzak, A. M., Kieckbusch, J., Cindrova-Davies, T., & Watson, E. (2017). Dynamic expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 dioxygenases in mouse and human placentas throughout gestation.. Placenta, 59 46-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2017.09.008
Introduction: Throughout pregnancy, the placenta dynamically changes as trophoblast progenitors differentiate into mature trophoblast cell subtypes. This process is in part controlled by epigenetic regulation of DNA methylation leading to the inactivation of ‘progenitor cell’ genes and the activation of ‘differentiation’ genes. TET methylcytosine dioxygenases convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) during DNA demethylation events. Here, we determine the spatiotemporal expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 in specific trophoblast cell populations of mouse and human placentas throughout gestation, and consider their role in trophoblast cell differentiation and function. Methods: In situ hybridization analysis was conducted to localize Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 mRNA at key stages of mouse placental development. The distribution of 5mC and 5hmC in these samples was also evaluated. In comparison, expression patterns of TET1, TET2, and TET3 protein in human placentas were determined in first trimester and term pregnancies. Results: In mouse, Tet1-3 mRNA was widely expressed in trophoblast cell populations from embryonic (E) day 8.5 to E12.5 including in progenitor and differentiated cells. However, expression became restricted to specific trophoblast giant cell subtypes by late gestation (E14.5 to E18.5). This coincided with cellular changes in 5mC and 5hmC levels. In human, cell columns, extravillous trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast expressed TET1-3 whereas only TET3 was expressed in villus cytotrophoblast cells in first trimester and term placentas. Discussion: Altogether, our data suggest that TET enzymes may play a dynamic role in the regulation of transcriptional activity of trophoblast progenitors and differentiated cell subtypes in mouse and human placentas.
Placenta, Animals, Humans, Mice, 5-Methylcytosine, Dioxygenases, Mixed Function Oxygenases, DNA-Binding Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Pregnancy, Female
Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine ()
Royal Society (NF150004)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2017.09.008
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/274959
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
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