Plant defense signals: Players and pawns in plant-virus-vector interactions

Carr, JP 
Murphy, AM 
Tungadi, T 
Yoon, JY 

Thumbnail Image
Change log

Plant viruses face an array of host defenses. Well-studied responses that protect against viruses include effector-triggered immunity, induced resistance (such as systemic acquired resistance mediated by salicylic acid), and RNA silencing. Recent work shows that viruses are also affected by non-host resistance mechanisms; previously thought to affect only bacteria, oomycetes and fungi. However, an enduring puzzle is how viruses are inhibited by several inducible host resistance mechanisms. Many viruses have been shown to encode factors that inhibit antiviral silencing. A number of these, including the cucumoviral 2b protein, the poytviral P1/HC-Pro and, respectively, geminivirus or satellite DNA-encoded proteins such as the C2 or βC1, also inhibit defensive signaling mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. This helps to explain how viruses can, in some cases, overcome host resistance. Additionally, interference with defensive signaling provides a means for viruses to manipulate plant-insect interactions. This is important because insects, particularly aphids and whiteflies, transmit many viruses. Indeed, there is now substantial evidence that viruses can enhance their own transmission through their effects on hosts. Even more surprisingly, it appears that viruses may be able to manipulate plant interactions with beneficial insects by, for example, ‘paying back’ their hosts by attracting pollinators.

Publication Date
Online Publication Date
Acceptance Date
Disease Resistance, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Plant Diseases, Plant Immunity, Plant Viruses, Signal Transduction
Journal Title
Plant Science
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/J011762/1)
Leverhulme Trust (RPF-2012-667)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/P023223/1)
Riding for the Disabled Association (RDA) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHHS) (unknown)