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dc.contributor.authorRasmussen, Simon
dc.contributor.authorAllentoft, Morten Erik
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Kasper
dc.contributor.authorOrlando, Ludovic
dc.contributor.authorSikora, Martin
dc.contributor.authorSjögren, Karl-Göran
dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Anders Gorm
dc.contributor.authorSchubert, Mikkel
dc.contributor.authorVan Dam, Alex
dc.contributor.authorKapel, Christian Moliin Outzen
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Henrik Bjørn
dc.contributor.authorBrunak, Søren
dc.contributor.authorAvetisyan, Pavel
dc.contributor.authorEpimakhov, Andrey
dc.contributor.authorKhalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich
dc.contributor.authorGnuni, Artak
dc.contributor.authorKriiska, Aivar
dc.contributor.authorLasak, Irena
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Mait
dc.contributor.authorMoiseyev, Vyacheslav
dc.contributor.authorGromov, Andrei
dc.contributor.authorPokutta, Dalia
dc.contributor.authorSaag, Lehti
dc.contributor.authorVarul, Liivi
dc.contributor.authorYepiskoposyan, Levon
dc.contributor.authorSicheritz-Pontén, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorFoley, Robert
dc.contributor.authorMirazon Lahr, Mirazon Lahr
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Rasmus
dc.contributor.authorKristiansen, Kristian
dc.contributor.authorWillerslev, Eske
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-20T12:05:21Z
dc.date.available2018-09-20T12:05:21Z
dc.date.issued2015-10-22
dc.identifier.issn0092-8674
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/280498
dc.description.abstractThe bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics.
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectTooth
dc.subjectAnimals
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectYersinia pestis
dc.subjectPlague
dc.subjectDNA, Bacterial
dc.subjectHistory, Ancient
dc.subjectHistory, Medieval
dc.subjectAsia
dc.subjectEurope
dc.subjectSiphonaptera
dc.titleEarly divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage582
prism.issueIdentifier3
prism.publicationDate2015
prism.publicationNameCell
prism.startingPage571
prism.volume163
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.27868
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-10-02
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-10-22
dc.contributor.orcidFoley, Robert [0000-0003-0479-3039]
dc.contributor.orcidMirazon Lahr, Mirazon Lahr [0000-0001-5752-5770]
dc.contributor.orcidWillerslev, Eske [0000-0002-7081-6748]
dc.identifier.eissn1097-4172
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Research Council (295907)


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International