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dc.contributor.authorStar, Bastiaanen
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, Jamesen
dc.contributor.authorGondek, Agata Ten
dc.contributor.authorBoessenkool, Sanneen
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-08T00:31:10Z
dc.date.available2018-11-08T00:31:10Z
dc.date.issued2018-08-08en
dc.identifier.issn0962-8452
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/284761
dc.description.abstractThe importance of the Atlantic walrus ivory trade for the colonization, peak, and collapse of the medieval Norse colonies on Greenland has been extensively debated. Nevertheless, no studies have directly traced medieval European ivory back to distinct Arctic populations of walrus. Analysing the entire mitogenomes of 37 archaeological specimens from Europe, Svalbard, and Greenland, we here discover that Atlantic walrus comprises two monophyletic mitochondrial (MT) clades, which diverged between 23400and 251120 years ago. Our improved genomic resolution allows us to reinterpret the geographical distribution of partial MT data from 306 modern and nineteenth-century specimens, finding that one of these clades was exclusively accessible to Greenlanders. With this discovery, we ascertain the biological origin of 23 archaeological specimens from Europe (most dated between 900 and 1400 CE). These results reveal a significant shift int rade from an early, predominantly eastern source towards a near exclusive representation of Greenland ivory. Our study provides empirical evidence for how this remote Arctic resource was progressively integrated into a medieval pan-European trade network, contributing to both the resilience and vulnerability of Norse Greenland society.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the Nansenfondet, the Research Council of Norway projects 262777 and 230821, and the Leverhulme Trust project ‘Northern Journeys’ MRF-2013-065.
dc.format.mediumElectronicen
dc.languageengen
dc.publisherThe Royal Society
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectCuspiden
dc.subjectAnimalsen
dc.subjectWalrusesen
dc.subjectDNA, Mitochondrialen
dc.subjectCommerceen
dc.subjectHistory, Medievalen
dc.subjectGreenlanden
dc.subjectDNA, Ancienten
dc.titleAncient DNA reveals the chronology of walrus ivory trade from Norse Greenland.en
dc.typeArticle
prism.issueIdentifier1884en
prism.publicationDate2018en
prism.publicationNameProceedings. Biological sciencesen
prism.volume285en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.32132
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-07-12en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1098/rspb.2018.0978en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2018-08-08en
dc.contributor.orcidStar, Bastiaan [0000-0003-0235-9810]
dc.contributor.orcidBarrett, James [0000-0002-6683-9891]
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2954
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idLeverhulme Trust (MRF-2013-065)
pubs.funder-project-idResearch Council of Norway (via University of Oslo) (230821)
pubs.funder-project-idResearch Council of Norway (via University of Oslo) (262777/STBR)


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International