Molecular autopsy by trio exome sequencing (ES) and postmortem examination in fetuses and neonates with prenatally identified structural anomalies.
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic yield of combined exome sequencing (ES) and autopsy in fetuses/neonates with prenatally identified structural anomalies resulting in termination of pregnancy, intrauterine, neonatal, or early infant death. METHODS: ES was undertaken in 27 proband/parent trios following full autopsy. Candidate pathogenic variants were classified by a multidisciplinary clinical review panel using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. RESULTS: A genetic diagnosis was established in ten cases (37%). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in nine different genes including four de novo autosomal dominant, three homozygous autosomal recessive, two compound heterozygous autosomal recessive, and one X-linked. KMT2D variants (associated with Kabuki syndrome postnatally) occurred in two cases. Pathogenic variants were identified in 5/13 (38%) cases with multisystem anomalies, in 2/4 (50%) cases with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, and in 1/4 (25%) cases each with cardiac and brain anomalies and hydrops fetalis. No pathogenic variants were detected in fetuses with genitourinary (1), skeletal (1), or abdominal (1) abnormalities. CONCLUSION: This cohort demonstrates the clinical utility of molecular autopsy with ES to identify an underlying genetic cause in structurally abnormal fetuses/neonates. These molecular findings provided parents with an explanation of the developmental abnormality, delineated the recurrence risks, and assisted the management of subsequent pregnancies.
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Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0616-10035)