The global prevalence and genetic spectrum of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: A rare condition that mimics NAFLD.
Brackley, Simon Mark
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Carter, A., Brackley, S. M., Gao, J., & Mann, J. (2019). The global prevalence and genetic spectrum of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: A rare condition that mimics NAFLD.. J Hepatol, 70 (1), 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.09.028
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is an autosomal recessive condition that may present in a mild form (cholesteryl ester storage disease [CESD]), which mimics non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been suggested that CESD may affect 1 in 40,000 and is under-diagnosed in NAFLD clinics. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of LAL-D using analysis of genetic variation in LIPA. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for previously reported disease variants and prevalence estimates. Previous prevalence estimates were meta-analysed. Disease variants in LIPA were annotated with allele frequencies from gnomAD and combined with unreported major functional variants found in humans. Pooled ethnicity-specific prevalences for LAL-D and CESD were calculated using the Hardy-Weinberg equation. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of existing genetic studies estimated the prevalence of LAL-D as 1 per 160,000 (95% CI 1 per 65,025-761,652) using the allele frequency of c.894G>A in LIPA. A total of 98 previously reported disease variants in LIPA were identified, of which 32/98 were present in gnomAD, giving a prevalence of 1 per 307,482 (95% CI 257,672-366,865). Wolman disease was associated with more loss-of-function variants than CESD. When this was combined with 22 previously unreported major functional variants in LIPA identified in humans, the pooled prevalence of LAL-D was 1 per 177,452 (95% CI 149,467-210,683) with a carrier frequency of 1 per 421. The prevalence is lowest in those of East Asian, South Asian, and Finnish ancestry. CONCLUSION: Using 120 disease variants in LIPA, these data can reassure clinicians that LAL-D is an ultra-rare disorder. Given the therapeutic capability of sebelipase alpha, investigation for LAL-D might be included in second-line metabolic screening in NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare genetic condition that can cause severe liver disease, but it is difficult to diagnose and sometimes can look like simple fatty liver. It was not clear how common LAL-D was and whether many cases were being missed. To study this, we searched for all genetic mutations that could cause LAL-D, calculated how common those mutations were, and added them up. This let us estimate that LAL-D affects roughly 1 in 175,000 people. We conclude that LAL-D is a very rare condition, but it is treatable so may be included in a 'second-line' of tests for causes of fatty liver.
Liver, Humans, Wolman Disease, Rare Diseases, Diagnosis, Differential, Prevalence, DNA Mutational Analysis, Gene Frequency, Mutation, Sterol Esterase, Global Health, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.09.028
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/286322