Human Milk Short-Chain Fatty Acid Composition is Associated with Adiposity Outcomes in Infants.
Prentice, Philippa M
Schoemaker, Marieke H
Lambers, Tim T
van Tol, Eric AF
The Journal of nutrition
American Society for Nutritional Sciences
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Prentice, P. M., Schoemaker, M. H., Vervoort, J., Hettinga, K., Lambers, T. T., van Tol, E. A., Acerini, C., et al. (2019). Human Milk Short-Chain Fatty Acid Composition is Associated with Adiposity Outcomes in Infants.. The Journal of nutrition, 149 (5), 716-722. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy320
Background: Presumed benefits of human milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient composition. However, data on breast milk composition and its relationship with growth are sparse. Objective: We investigated whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), known to be present in HM and linked to energy metabolism, are associated with infancy anthropometrics. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, HM hind milk samples were collected from 619 lactating mothers at 4-8 weeks postnatally [median(IQR) age: 33.9(31.3-36.5) y, BMI (in kg/m2): 22.8(20.9-25.2)]. Their offspring, born at 40.1(39.1-41.0) weeks gestation with weight: 3.56(3.22-3.87) kg and 51% male, were assessed with measurement of weight, length, and skinfolds thickness at ages 3, 12, and 24 months, and transformed to age and sex-adjusted z-scores. HM SCFAs were measured by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC-MS). Multivariable linear regression models were conducted to analyze the relationships between NMR HM SCFAs peaks and infancy growth parameters with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: NMR peaks for HM butyrate, acetate, formic acid, but not propionate, were detected. Butyrate peaks were 17.8% higher in HM from exclusively breastfeeding mothers than mixed-feeding mothers (p=0.003). HM butyrate peak-values were negatively associated with changes in infant weight (standardized B=-0.10, p=0.019) and BMI (B=-0.10, p=0.018) between 3 and 12 months, and negatively associated with BMI (B=-0.10, p=0.018) and mean skinfolds thickness (B=-0.10, p=0.049) at age 12 months. HM formic acid peak-values showed a consistent negative association with infant BMI at all time points (B<=-0.10, P<=0.014) while HM acetate was negatively associated with skinfolds thickness at 3 months (B=-0.10, p=0.028) and 24 months (B=-0.10, p=0.036). Conclusions: These results suggest HM SCFAs play a beneficial role in weight gain and adiposity during infancy. Further knowledge of HM SCFAs function may inform future strategies to support healthy growth.
Milk, Human, Humans, Obesity, Weight Gain, Fatty Acids, Volatile, Anthropometry, Body Mass Index, Skinfold Thickness, Prospective Studies, Breast Feeding, Lactation, Adult, Child, Preschool, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Female, Male, Adiposity
PP was supported by a Medical Research Council Clinical Training Fellowship (G1001995). The Cambridge Baby Growth Study has been supported by the European Union (QLK4-1999-01422), the World Cancer Research Foundation International (2004/03), the Medical Research Council (7500001180), the NIHR Cambridge Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, Newlife - The Charity for Disabled Children (07/20), Mothercare Foundation (RG54608), and Mead Johnson Nutrition. KKO is supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2).
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) via Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN) (UKCRN 15224)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (via West Anglia Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN)) (UKCRN 11822)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M027252/1)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy320
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/288528