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Wu, H. (2018). 清初中西科学交流的一个非宫廷视角：法国耶稣会传教士殷弘绪的行迹与学术. 北京行政学院学报 https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.36194
本文对清初法国耶稣会传教士殷弘绪（François-Xavier Dentrecolles, 1664-1741）在华四十年的行迹与西文学术撰著进行对照考察，借此对中西科学交流史的将“科学”等同为“上层路线”的宫廷中心叙事提出修正。殷弘绪的撰著数量和涉猎范围均为清代在华耶稣会传教士翘楚，在科学史领域尤其地位重要，但其一生未在宫廷服务，未与中欧学术机构建立联系，并始终立足民间，奉行自下而上的传教策略。本文将殷弘绪生平分为里昂时期（1683-1699）、福建-江西时期（1700-1719）、北京时期（1720-1741），将其一生有关中国的西文著述分为服务宗教的传教学术和为法国工商业利益服务的世俗科学，前者包括与教会内外对手论战、亦包括对中国社会习俗和信仰的考察，后者包括对中国植物、手工业、医学知识的考察和介绍。本文梳理殷弘绪学术撰著的背景、目的和信息来源后认为，在殷弘绪的在华生涯中，传教士身份始终压倒学者身份占据主导，学术有时服务于传教，但并非传教的手段。相反，其学术成就则主要在于利用传教士身份提供的条件，对中国本土知识进行记录和翻译。其利用的学术资源和关注的学术话题均有一定非宫廷色彩，包括关注中国民间自然知识、中国地方精英的慈善实践、与普通文人和工匠对话、以及利用非经典性的实用书籍和白话文学。通过这一典型案例，本文认为宫廷以外的传教士学术值得进一步研究，从而不仅丰富中西交流史的叙事，也为理解中国民间的知识流动状况提供更多旁证。 The French Jesuit missionary François-Xavier Dentrecolles lived for forty years in China. His scholarship, particularly in the field of science and technology, stands out from that of other Qing missionaries both in terms of amount and scope. However, he never served in the imperial court, as did some missionaries, and did not establish direct links with scholarly institutions in China or in Europe. As a missionary, he was a strong advocate of a bottom-up strategy of evangelization throughout his career. Dentrecolles’s career is divided into the Lyon period (1683-1699), the Fujian-Jiangxi period (1700-1719) and the Beijing period (1720-1741). His Western language writings on China follow a clear two-fold divide into missionary knowledge serving an evangelical purpose and secular science serving French industrial and commercial interests. The former included polemical writings against anti-clerical authors and observations of Chinese social practices and beliefs, while the latter consisted of reports on Chinese flora, craftsmanship and medicine. Primarily a missionary rather than a scholar, Dentrecolles’s scholarship was shaped by his missionary work, though he did not use science as a means for evangelization. His scholarly career was nonetheless facilitated by his position as a missionary which allowed him to access, record and translate Chinese knowledge. His scholarship was markedly that of a non-courtier in terms of fields of interests and intellectual resources. As a typical case of a missionary outside the court with significant scholarly output, Dentrecolles’s career not only enriches our understanding of Sino-Western exchange, but also offers rare evidence of knowledge circulation in the lower echelons of Chinese society.
This record's DOI: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.36194
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/288931