Patients Presenting with a Hot, Swollen Joint: a Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis
Current Rheumatology Reviews
Bentham Science Publishers
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Khan, W. (2019). Patients Presenting with a Hot, Swollen Joint: a Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis. Current Rheumatology Reviews https://doi.org/10.2174/1573397115666190122113659
A hot, swollen joint is a common clinical condition encountered in the ED and elective orthopaedic and rheumatology clinics. These patients can be difficult to manage and properly treat. The aim of this study was to report a single centre retrospective analysis of patients presenting to our institution for a hot, swollen joint over a three-month period. The study included patients presenting with a hot, swollen joint to ED or electively to clinics. The synovial fluid was aspirated and sent for microbiological and cytological investigation. P value was set to < 0.001. 36 patients (22 M, 14 F) with a mean age of 72.8 ± 17.4 years met our criteria. 20 cases (55.6 %) involved the knee joint, the wrist in 10 cases (27.8%), the elbow in 3 cases (8.3%) and the shoulder in 3 cases (8.3%). Of the 36 synovial fluid samples collected, only 7 (19.4%) reported evidence of infection. On cytological examination of the synovial fluid, 21 (58.3%) reported presence of calcium pyrophosphates crystals (Pseudogout), 4 (11.1 %) reported presence of uric acid crystals (Gout) and 11 (30.5%) reported absence of crystals. We found a significant correlation between age and the diagnosis of pseudogout and between previous antibiotic treatment and ED presentation. Our study sheds light on the high incidence of crystal-related pathologies. In order to improve our management of this common condition and enhance our understanding of the clinical diagnosis in certain patient population, further high-profile clinical studies are needed.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1573397115666190122113659
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/289068