Artificial intelligence in breast imaging.
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Le, E., Wang, Y., Huang, Y., Hickman, S., & Gilbert, F. (2019). Artificial intelligence in breast imaging.. Clin Radiol, 74 (5), 357-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2019.02.006
This article reviews current limitations and future opportunities for the application of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems and artificial intelligence in breast imaging. Traditional CAD systems in mammography screening have followed a rules-based approach, incorporating domain knowledge into hand-crafted features before using classical machine learning techniques as a classifier. The first commercial CAD system, ImageChecker M1000, relies on computer vision techniques for pattern recognition. Unfortunately, CAD systems have been shown to adversely affect some radiologists' performance and increase recall rates. The Digital Mammography DREAM Challenge was a multidisciplinary collaboration that provided 640,000 mammography images for teams to help decrease false-positive rates in breast cancer screening. Winning solutions leveraged deep learning's (DL) automatic hierarchical feature learning capabilities and used convolutional neural networks. Start-ups Therapixel and Kheiron Medical Technologies are using DL for breast cancer screening. With increasing use of digital breast tomosynthesis, specific artificial intelligence (AI)-CAD systems are emerging to include iCAD's PowerLook Tomo Detection and ScreenPoint Medical's Transpara. Other AI-CAD systems are focusing on breast diagnostic techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is a gap in the market for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography AI-CAD tools. Clinical implementation of AI-CAD tools requires testing in scenarios mimicking real life to prove its usefulness in the clinical environment. This requires a large and representative dataset for testing and assessment of the reader's interaction with the tools. A cost-effectiveness assessment should be undertaken, with a large feasibility study carried out to ensure there are no unintended consequences. AI-CAD systems should incorporate explainable AI in accordance with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
Breast, Humans, Breast Neoplasms, Mammography, Artificial Intelligence, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Elizabeth PV Le is undertaking a PhD funded by the Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Frank Edward Elmore Fund and the Medical Research Council’s Doctoral Training Partnership (Award Reference: 1966157).
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/N014588/1)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0515-10067)
Medical Research Council (1966157)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2019.02.006
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/290051