Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorCullen, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorAllwood, Julian M.
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-29T13:59:03Z
dc.date.available2019-05-29T13:59:03Z
dc.date.issued2013-04-02
dc.identifier.issn0013-936X
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/293211
dc.description.abstractDemand for aluminum in final products has increased 30-fold since 1950 to 45 million tonnes per year, with forecasts predicting this exceptional growth to continue so that demand will reach 2-3 times today's levels by 2050. Aluminum production uses 3.5% of global electricity and causes 1% of global CO2 emissions, while meeting a 50% cut in emissions by 2050 against growing demand would require at least a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of aluminum produced--a challenging prospect. In this paper we trace the global flows of aluminum from liquid metal to final products, revealing for the first time a complete map of the aluminum system and providing a basis for future study of the emissions abatement potential of material efficiency. The resulting Sankey diagram also draws attention to two key issues. First, around half of all liquid aluminum (~39 Mt) produced each year never reaches a final product, and a detailed discussion of these high yield losses shows significant opportunities for improvement. Second, aluminum recycling, which avoids the high energy costs and emissions of electrolysis, requires signification "dilution" (~ 8 Mt) and "cascade" (~ 6 Mt) flows of higher aluminum grades to make up for the shortfall in scrap supply and to obtain the desired alloy mix, increasing the energy required for recycling.
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
dc.subjectAluminum
dc.subjectGreenhouse Effect
dc.subjectInternationality
dc.subjectRecycling
dc.titleMapping the global flow of aluminum: from liquid aluminum to end-use goods.
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage3064
prism.issueIdentifier7
prism.publicationDate2013
prism.publicationNameEnviron Sci Technol
prism.startingPage3057
prism.volume47
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.40359
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1021/es304256s
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2013-04
dc.contributor.orcidCullen, Jonathan [0000-0003-4347-5025]
dc.contributor.orcidAllwood, Julian M. [0000-0003-0931-3831]
dc.identifier.eissn1520-5851
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/G007217/1)
cam.issuedOnline2013-03-11


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record