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dc.contributor.authorPlotnik, Joshua M
dc.contributor.authorBrubaker, Daniel L
dc.contributor.authorDale, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorTiller, Lydia N
dc.contributor.authorMumby, Hannah S
dc.contributor.authorClayton, Nicola S
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-13T23:30:11Z
dc.date.available2019-06-13T23:30:11Z
dc.date.issued2019-06-18
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/293606
dc.description.abstractAnimals often face situations that require making decisions based on quantity. Many species, including humans, rely on an ability to differentiate between more and less to make judgments about social relationships, territories, and food. Habitat-related choices require animals to decide between areas with greater and lesser quantities of food while also weighing relative risk of danger based on group size and predation risk. Such decisions can have a significant impact on survival for an animal and its social group. Many species have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating between two quantities of food and choosing the greater of the two, but they have done so based on information provided primarily in the visual domain. Using an object-choice task, we demonstrate that elephants are able to discriminate between two distinct quantities using their olfactory sense alone. We presented the elephants with choices between two containers of sunflower seeds. The relationship between the amount of seeds within the two containers was represented by 11 different ratios. Overall, the elephants chose the larger quantity of food by smelling for it. The elephants' performance was better when the relative difference between the quantities increased and worse when the ratio between the quantities of food increased, but was not affected by the overall quantity of food presented. These results are consistent with the performance of animals tested in the visual domain. This work has implications for the design of future, cross-phylogenetic cognitive comparisons that ought to account for differences in how animals sense their world.
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.subjectAnimals
dc.subjectElephants
dc.subjectCognition
dc.subjectChoice Behavior
dc.subjectTask Performance and Analysis
dc.subjectSmell
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectMale
dc.subjectOdorants
dc.titleElephants have a nose for quantity.
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage12571
prism.issueIdentifier25
prism.publicationDate2019
prism.publicationNameProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
prism.startingPage12566
prism.volume116
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.40732
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-04-11
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1073/pnas.1818284116
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-06-03
dc.contributor.orcidDale, Rachel [0000-0003-0526-8834]
dc.contributor.orcidMumby, Hannah S [0000-0002-1774-5688]
dc.identifier.eissn1091-6490
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
cam.issuedOnline2019-06-03
cam.orpheus.successThu Jan 30 10:43:43 GMT 2020 - Embargo updated
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2019-12-03


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