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dc.contributor.authorPlotnik, Joshua Men
dc.contributor.authorBrubaker, Daniel Len
dc.contributor.authorDale, Rachelen
dc.contributor.authorTiller, Lydia Nen
dc.contributor.authorMumby, Hannahen
dc.contributor.authorClayton, Nicolaen
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-13T23:30:11Z
dc.date.available2019-06-13T23:30:11Z
dc.date.issued2019-06-03en
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/293606
dc.description.abstract<jats:p>Animals often face situations that require making decisions based on quantity. Many species, including humans, rely on an ability to differentiate between more and less to make judgments about social relationships, territories, and food. Habitat-related choices require animals to decide between areas with greater and lesser quantities of food while also weighing relative risk of danger based on group size and predation risk. Such decisions can have a significant impact on survival for an animal and its social group. Many species have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating between two quantities of food and choosing the greater of the two, but they have done so based on information provided primarily in the visual domain. Using an object-choice task, we demonstrate that elephants are able to discriminate between two distinct quantities using their olfactory sense alone. We presented the elephants with choices between two containers of sunflower seeds. The relationship between the amount of seeds within the two containers was represented by 11 different ratios. Overall, the elephants chose the larger quantity of food by smelling for it. The elephants’ performance was better when the relative difference between the quantities increased and worse when the ratio between the quantities of food increased, but was not affected by the overall quantity of food presented. These results are consistent with the performance of animals tested in the visual domain. This work has implications for the design of future, cross-phylogenetic cognitive comparisons that ought to account for differences in how animals sense their world.</jats:p>
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronicen
dc.languageengen
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.subjectAnimalsen
dc.subjectElephantsen
dc.subjectCognitionen
dc.subjectChoice Behavioren
dc.subjectTask Performance and Analysisen
dc.subjectSmellen
dc.subjectFemaleen
dc.subjectMaleen
dc.subjectOdorantsen
dc.titleElephants have a nose for quantity.en
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage12571
prism.issueIdentifier25en
prism.publicationDate2019en
prism.publicationNameProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Americaen
prism.startingPage12566
prism.volume116en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.40732
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-04-11en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1073/pnas.1818284116en
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-06-03en
dc.contributor.orcidDale, Rachel [0000-0003-0526-8834]
dc.contributor.orcidMumby, Hannah [0000-0002-1774-5688]
dc.contributor.orcidClayton, Nicola [0000-0003-1835-423X]
dc.identifier.eissn1091-6490
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
cam.orpheus.successThu Jan 30 10:43:43 GMT 2020 - Embargo updated*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2019-12-03


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