Mapping and editing animal mitochondrial genomes: can we overcome the challenges?
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
The Royal Society
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Klucnika, A., & Ma, H. (2020). Mapping and editing animal mitochondrial genomes: can we overcome the challenges?. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375 (1790), 20190187. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0187
The animal mitochondrial genome, although small, can have a big impact on health and disease. Non-pathogenic sequence variation among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes influences traits including fertility, healthspan and longevity, whereas pathogenic mutations are linked to incurable mitochondrial diseases and other complex conditions like ageing, diabetes, cancer and neurodegeneration. However, we know very little about how mtDNA genetic variation contributes to phenotypic differences. A low frequency of recombination, the multicopy nature and nucleic acid-impenetrable membranes present significant challenges that hamper our ability to precisely map mtDNA variants responsible for traits, and to genetically modify mtDNA so that we can isolate specific mutants and characterise their biochemical and physiological consequences. Here, we summarise the past struggles and efforts in developing systems to map and edit mtDNA. We also assess the future of performing forward and reverse genetic studies on animal mitochondrial genomes.
Mitochondria, Animals, Humans, DNA, Mitochondrial, Chromosome Mapping, Genome, Mitochondrial, Gene Editing
This work is funded by Wellcome Trust grant 203767/Z/16/Z to AK and 202269/Z/16/Z to HM.
Wellcome Trust (202269/Z/16/Z)
WELLCOME TRUST (203767/Z/16/Z)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0187
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/297873
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