Genome-wide analysis identifies molecular systems and 149 genetic loci associated with income.
Hill, W David
Roberts, David J
Deary, Ian J
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Hill, W. D., Davies, N. M., Ritchie, S. J., Skene, N. G., Bryois, J., Bell, S., Di Angelantonio, E., et al. (2019). Genome-wide analysis identifies molecular systems and 149 genetic loci associated with income.. Nature communications, 10 (1), 5741. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13585-5
Socio-economic position (SEP) is a multi-dimensional construct reflecting (and influencing) multiple socio-cultural, physical, and environmental factors. In a sample of 286,301 participants from UK Biobank, we identify 30 independent-loci associated with income. Using a recently-developed method to meta-analyze data from genetically-correlated traits, we identify an additional 120 income associated loci. These loci show clear evidence of functionality, with transcriptional differences identified across multiple cortical tissues, and links to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. By combining our GWAS on income with data from eQTL studies and chromatin interactions, 24 genes are prioritized for follow up, 18 of which were previously associated with intelligence. We identify intelligence as one of the likely causal, partly-heritable phenotypes that might bridge the gap between molecular genetic inheritance and phenotypic consequence in terms of income differences. These results indicate that, in Great Britain in the modern era, genetic effects contribute towards some of the observed socioeconomic inequalities.
Humans, Intelligence, Genotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quantitative Trait Loci, Social Class, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Income, Female, Male, Genome-Wide Association Study, United Kingdom
This work was undertaken in The University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology (CCACE), supported by the cross-council Lifelong Health and Wellbeing initiative (MR/K026992/1). Generation Scotland received core support from the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates [CZD/16/6] and the Scottish Funding Council [HR03006] and from the Medical Research Council UK and the Wellcome Trust (Wellcome Trust Strategic Award “STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally” (STRADL) Reference 104036/Z/14/Z). Funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Medical Research Council (MRC), and the University of Edinburgh and gratefully acknowledged. CCACE funding supports IJD. CH was supported by an MRC University Unit Programme Grant MC_UU_00007/10 (QTL in Health and Disease). The Medical Research Council (MRC) and the University of Bristol support the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit [MC_UU_12013/1, MC_UU_12013/9, MC_UU_00011/1]. The Economics and Social Research Council (ESRC) support NMD via a Future Research Leaders grant [ES/N000757/1]. This work is part of a project entitled ‘social and economic consequences of health: causal inference methods and longitudinal, intergenerational data’, which is part of the Health Foundation’s Efficiency Research Programme. Participants in INTERVAL were recruited with the active collaboration of NHS Blood and Transplant England (www.nhsbt.nhs.uk). DNA extraction and genotyping was co-funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the NIHR BioResource (http://bioresource.nihr.ac.uk/) and the NIHR [Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre at the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust] [*]. The academic coordinating centre for INTERVAL was supported by core funding from: NIHR Blood and Transplant Research Unit in Donor Health and Genomics (NIHR BTRU-2014-10024), UK Medical Research Council (MR/L003120/1), British Heart Foundation (RG/13/13/30194) and the NIHR [Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre at the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust]. A complete list of the investigators and contributors to the INTERVAL trial is provided in reference16. The academic coordinating centre would like to thank blood donor centre staff and blood donors for participating in the INTERVAL trial.
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NIHR BTRU-2014-10024)
British Heart Foundation (RG/13/13/30194)
British Heart Foundation (RG/18/13/33946)
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13585-5
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/298899
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