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dc.contributor.authorGao, Yunhuen
dc.contributor.authorTorrente-Murciano, Lauraen
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-21T00:30:45Z
dc.date.available2020-02-21T00:30:45Z
dc.date.issued2020-01-28en
dc.identifier.issn2040-3364
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/302466
dc.description.abstractThis paper presents fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the Turkevich protocol, the method recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using sodium citrate as reducing agent. Herein, we reveal that the Turkevich mechanism consists of two consecutive reduction steps (Au3+→ Au+→ Au0) rather than a reduction followed by the disproportionation reaction as conventionally believed. This new understanding has profound implications: i. the second reduction step (Au+→ Au0), rather than the previously postulated first reduction step, is the rate-limiting reduction step and ii. the formation of acetone dicarboxylate (DC2-) as an intermediate product through the oxidation of citrate has a key role as stabilizer and as a reducing agent (stronger than sodium citrate). This knowledge enables the synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 5.2 ± 1.7 nm to 21.4 ± 3.4 nm, with the lower end considerably smaller than previously reported through the Turkevich route. This work provides fundamental guidance for the controllable synthesis of nanoparticles using DC2- as a reducing agent directly applicable to other precious metals.
dc.languageengen
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.rights.uri
dc.titleMechanistic insights of the reduction of gold salts in the Turkevich protocol.en
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage2751
prism.issueIdentifier4en
prism.publicationDate2020en
prism.publicationNameNanoscaleen
prism.startingPage2740
prism.volume12en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.49537
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-12-26en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1039/c9nr08877fen
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-01-28en
dc.identifier.eissn2040-3372
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
cam.issuedOnline2019-12-28en
cam.orpheus.successTue Mar 31 10:35:45 BST 2020 - Embargo updated*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2020-12-28


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