Do mobile device apps designed to support medication adherence demonstrate efficacy? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, with meta-analysis.
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Armitage, L. C., Kassavou, A., & Sutton, S. (2020). Do mobile device apps designed to support medication adherence demonstrate efficacy? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, with meta-analysis.. BMJ open, 10 (1), e032045. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032045
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the efficacy of app-based interventions designed to support medication adherence and investigate which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used by the apps are associated with efficacy. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with meta-analysis. SETTING: Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase and Web of Science were searched from 1990 to November 2018 for RCTs conducted in any healthcare setting. PARTICIPANTS: Studies of participants of any age taking prescribed medication for any health condition and for any duration. INTERVENTION: An app-based intervention delivered through a smartphone, tablet computer or personal digital assistant to help, support or advise about medication adherence. COMPARATOR: One of (1) usual care, (2) a control app which did not use any BCTs to improve medication adherence or (3) a non-app-based comparator. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the pooled effect size of changes in medication adherence. The secondary outcome was the association between BCTs used by the apps and the effect size. RESULTS: The initial search identified 13 259 citations. After title and abstract screening, full-text articles of 83 studies were screened for eligibility. Nine RCTs with 1159 recruited participants were included. The mean age of participants was >50 years in all but one study. Health conditions of target populations included cardiovascular disease, depression, Parkinson's disease, psoriasis and multimorbidity. The meta-analysis indicated that patients who use mobile apps to support them in taking medications are more likely to self-report adherence to medications (OR 2.120, 95% CI 1.635 to 2.747, n=988) than those in the comparator groups. Meta-regression of the BCTs did not reveal any significant associations with effect size. CONCLUSIONS: App-based medication adherence interventions may have a positive effect on patient adherence. Larger scale studies are required to further evaluate this effect, including long-term sustainability, and intervention and participant characteristics that are associated with efficacy and app usage. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO Protocol Registration Number: CRD42017080150.
Humans, Cardiovascular Diseases, Computers, Handheld, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Medication Adherence, Self Report, Text Messaging, Smartphone
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (via Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG)) (RP-PG-0615-20013)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032045
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/303569
Attribution 4.0 International
Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/