Real-time in situ optical tracking of oxygen vacancy migration in memristors
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Di Martino, G., Demetriadou, A., Li, W., Kos, D., Zhu, B., Wang, X., de Nijs, B., et al. (2020). Real-time in situ optical tracking of oxygen vacancy migration in memristors. Nature Electronics, 3 (11), 687-693. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-00478-5
Resistive switches, which are also known as memristors, are low-power, nanosecond response devices that are used in a range of memory-centric technologies. Driven by an externally applied potential, the switching mechanism of valence change resistive memories involves the migration, accumulation and rearrangement of oxygen vacancies within a dielectric medium, leading to a change in electrical conductivity. The ability to look inside these devices and understand how morphological changes characterise their function has been vital in their development. However, current technologies are often destructive and invasive. Here, we report a non-destructive optical spectroscopy technique that can detect the motion of a few hundred oxygen vacancies with nanometre-scale sensitivity. Resistive switches are arranged in a nanoparticle-on-mirror geometry to exploit the high optical sensitivity to morphological changes occurring in tightly confined plasmonic hotspots within the switching material. Using the approach, we find that nanoscale oxygen bubbles form at the surface of a strontium titanate memristor film leading ultimately to device breakdown on cycling.
Is supplemented by: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.55556
GD acknowledges support from the Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability, J.J.B acknowledges funding from EPSRC grant EP/L027151/1, W.-W.L. and J.L.M.-D. from EPSRC grants EP/L011700/1, EP/N004272/1, EP/P007767/1 and the Isaac Newton Trust. AD acknowledges support from a Royal Society University Research Fellowship URF\R1\180097 and Royal Society Research Fellows Enhancement Award RGF\EA\181038, BdN acknowledges support from the Leverhulme Trust and the Isaac Newton Trust in the form of an ECF. The US-UK collaborative effort was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (ECCS-1902644 (Purdue University), ECCS-1902623 (University at Buffalo, SUNY) and the EPRSC, grant EP/T012218/1. J.D. also acknowledges funding from the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, grant CiET1819_24. B.Z. acknowledges support from China Scholarship Council and Cambridge Commonwealth, European and International Trust.
Isaac Newton Trust (18.23(G))
Royal Academy of Engineering (RAEng) (CiET1819\24)
Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2015-017)
Isaac Newton Trust (18.08(K))
Leverhulme Trust (ECF-2018-021)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) (829067)
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-00478-5
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/308464
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