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dc.contributor.authorIwaki, Hirotaka
dc.contributor.authorBlauwendraat, Cornelis
dc.contributor.authorLeonard, Hampton L
dc.contributor.authorMakarious, Mary B
dc.contributor.authorKim, Jonggeol J
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Ganqiang
dc.contributor.authorMaple-Grødem, Jodi
dc.contributor.authorCorvol, Jean-Christophe
dc.contributor.authorPihlstrøm, Lasse
dc.contributor.authorvan Nimwegen, Marlies
dc.contributor.authorSmolensky, Luba
dc.contributor.authorAmondikar, Ninad
dc.contributor.authorHutten, Samantha J
dc.contributor.authorFrasier, Mark
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, Khanh-Dung H
dc.contributor.authorRick, Jacqueline
dc.contributor.authorEberly, Shirley
dc.contributor.authorFaghri, Faraz
dc.contributor.authorAuinger, Peggy
dc.contributor.authorScott, Kirsten M
dc.contributor.authorWijeyekoon, Ruwani
dc.contributor.authorVan Deerlin, Vivianna M
dc.contributor.authorHernandez, Dena G
dc.contributor.authorGibbs, Raphael J
dc.contributor.authorDay-Williams, Aaron G
dc.contributor.authorBrice, Alexis
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Guido
dc.contributor.authorNoyce, Alastair J
dc.contributor.authorTysnes, Ole-Bjørn
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Jonathan R
dc.contributor.authorBreen, David P
dc.contributor.authorEstrada, Karol
dc.contributor.authorWegel, Claire E
dc.contributor.authorDanjou, Fabrice
dc.contributor.authorSimon, David K
dc.contributor.authorAndreassen, Ole A
dc.contributor.authorRavina, Bernard
dc.contributor.authorToft, Mathias
dc.contributor.authorHeutink, Peter
dc.contributor.authorBloem, Bastiaan R
dc.contributor.authorWeintraub, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorBarker, Roger
dc.contributor.authorWilliams-Gray, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorvan de Warrenburg, Bart P
dc.contributor.authorVan Hilten, Jacobus J
dc.contributor.authorScherzer, Clemens R
dc.contributor.authorSingleton, Andrew B
dc.contributor.authorNalls, Mike A
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-11T23:30:43Z
dc.date.available2020-08-11T23:30:43Z
dc.date.issued2021-01
dc.identifier.issn0885-3185
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/309011
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Previous studies reported various symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with sex. Some were conflicting or confirmed in only one study. OBJECTIVES: We examined sex associations to PD phenotypes cross-sectionally and longitudinally in large-scale data. METHODS: We tested 40 clinical phenotypes, using longitudinal, clinic-based patient cohorts, consisting of 5946 patients, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years. For continuous outcomes, we used linear regressions at baseline to test sex-associated differences in presentation, and linear mixed-effects models to test sex-associated differences in progression. For binomial outcomes, we used logistic regression models at baseline and Cox regression models for survival analyses. We adjusted for age, disease duration, and medication use. In the secondary analyses, data from 17 719 PD patients and 7588 non-PD participants from an online-only, self-assessment PD cohort were cross-sectionally evaluated to determine whether the sex-associated differences identified in the primary analyses were consistent and unique to PD. RESULTS: Female PD patients had a higher risk of developing dyskinesia early during the follow-up period, with a slower progression in activities of daily living difficulties, and a lower risk of developing cognitive impairments compared with male patients. The findings in the longitudinal, clinic-based cohorts were mostly consistent with the results of the online-only cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We observed sex-associated contributions to PD heterogeneity. These results highlight the necessity of future research to determine the underlying mechanisms and importance of personalized clinical management. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the Intramural Research Program the National Institute on Aging (NIA, Z01-AG000949-02), Biogen Idec, and the Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research.
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherWiley
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectParkinson Disease
dc.subjectDisease Progression
dc.subjectActivities of Daily Living
dc.subjectCohort Studies
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectMale
dc.subjectCognitive Dysfunction
dc.titleDifferences in the Presentation and Progression of Parkinson's Disease by Sex.
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage117
prism.issueIdentifier1
prism.publicationDate2021
prism.publicationNameMov Disord
prism.startingPage106
prism.volume36
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.56101
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-08-03
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1002/mds.28312
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-01
dc.contributor.orcidIwaki, Hirotaka [0000-0002-8982-7885]
dc.contributor.orcidLiu, Ganqiang [0000-0002-1921-9542]
dc.contributor.orcidNoyce, Alastair J [0000-0003-3027-5497]
dc.contributor.orcidWeintraub, Daniel [0000-0003-0633-7168]
dc.contributor.orcidBarker, Roger [0000-0001-8843-7730]
dc.contributor.orcidWilliams-Gray, Caroline [0000-0002-2648-9743]
dc.identifier.eissn1531-8257
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
cam.issuedOnline2020-10
cam.orpheus.successMon Oct 12 07:30:47 BST 2020 - Embargo updated
cam.orpheus.counter8
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2021-10-01


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