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dc.contributor.authorRoman-Urrestarazu, Andresen
dc.contributor.authorvan-Kessel, Robinen
dc.contributor.authorAllison, Carrieen
dc.contributor.authorMatthews, Fiona Een
dc.contributor.authorBrayne, Carolen
dc.contributor.authorBaron-Cohen, Simonen
dc.description.abstractImportance The global prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported to be between 1% and 2% of the population, with little research in Black, Asian, and other racial/ethnic minority groups. Accurate estimates of ASD prevalence are vital to planning diagnostic, educational, health, and social care services and may detect possible access barriers to diagnostic pathways and services and inequalities based on social determinants of health. Objective To evaluate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with ASD prevalence and the likelihood of accessing ASD services in racial/ethnic minority and disadvantaged groups in England. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control prevalence cohort study used the Spring School Census 2017 from the Pupil Level Annual Schools Census of the National Pupil Database, which is a total population sample that includes all English children, adolescents, and young adults aged 2 to 21 years in state-funded education. Data were collected on January 17, 2017, and analyzed from August 2, 2018, to January 28, 2020. Exposures Age and sex were treated as a priori confounders while assessing correlates of ASD status according to (1) race/ethnicity, (2) social disadvantage, (3) first language spoken, (4) Education, Health and Care Plan or ASD Special Educational Needs and Disability support status, and (5) mediation analysis to assess how social disadvantage and language might affect ASD status. Main Outcomes and Measures Sex- and age-standardized ASD prevalence by race/ethnicity and 326 English local authority districts in pupils aged 5 to 19 years. Results The final population sample consisted of 7 047 238 pupils (50.99% male; mean [SD] age, 10.18 [3.47] years) and included 119 821 pupils with ASD, of whom 21 660 also had learning difficulties (18.08%). The standardized prevalence of ASD was 1.76% (95% CI, 1.75%-1.77%), with male pupils showing a prevalence of 2.81% (95% CI, 2.79%-2.83%) and female pupils a prevalence of 0.65% (95% CI, 0.64%-0.66%), for a male-to-female ratio (MFR) of 4.32:1. Standardized prevalence was highest in Black pupils (2.11% [95% CI, 2.06%-2.16%]; MFR, 4.68:1) and lowest in Roma/Irish Travelers (0.85% [95% CI, 0.67%-1.03%]; MFR, 2.84:1). Pupils with ASD were more likely to face social disadvantage (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.59-1.63) and to speak English as an additional language (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.63-0.65). The effect of race/ethnicity on ASD status was mediated mostly through social disadvantage, with Black pupils having the largest effect (standardized mediation coefficient, 0.018; P < .001) and 12.41% of indirect effects through this way. Conclusions and Relevance These findings suggest that significant differences in ASD prevalence exist across racial/ethnic groups and geographic areas and local authority districts, indicating possible differential phenotypic prevalence or differences in detection or referral for racial/ethnic minority groups.
dc.description.sponsorshipARU received funding from the Gillings Fellowship in Global Public Health and Autism Research, Grant Award YOG054 to the Cambridge Institute of Public Health (PI Carol Brayne). SBC received funding from Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 777394. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA and AUTISM SPEAKS, Autistica, SFARI. SBC also received funding from the Autism Research Trust, Autistica, the MRC, the Wellcome Trust and the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East of England at Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, NIHR or Department of Health and Social Care.
dc.publisherAmerican Medical Association
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.titleAssociation of Race/Ethnicity and Social Disadvantage With Autism Prevalence in 7 Million School Children in Englanden
prism.publicationNameJAMA Pediatricsen
dc.contributor.orcidAllison, Carrie [0000-0003-2272-2090]
dc.contributor.orcidBrayne, Carol [0000-0001-5307-663X]
dc.contributor.orcidBaron-Cohen, Simon [0000-0001-9217-2544]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (214322/Z/18/Z)

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International