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dc.contributor.authorTian, X
dc.contributor.authorStranks, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorYou, F
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-23T23:30:41Z
dc.date.available2021-06-23T23:30:41Z
dc.date.issued2021-09
dc.identifier.issn2398-9629
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/324309
dc.description.abstractEffectively recycling spent perovskite solar modules will further reduce the energy inputs and environmental consequences induced by their production and deployment, thus facilitating their sustainable development. Here, through “cradle-to-grave” life cycle assessments on a variety of perovskite solar cell architectures, we report that the substrates with conducting oxide and energy-intensive heating processes are the largest contributors to the primary energy consumption, global warming potential, and other impact categories. We thus focus on these materials and processes when expanding to “cradle-to-cradle” analyses with recycling as the end-of-life scenario. Our results reveal that recycling strategies can lead to up to 72.6% shorter energy payback time and 71.2% reduction in greenhouse gas emission factor. We highlight that the best recycled module architecture can exhibit an extremely small energy payback time of 0.09 years and greenhouse gas emission factor as low as 13.4 g CO2-eq/kWh, such that it outcompetes all other rivals including the market-leading silicon at 1.3 - 2.4 years and 22.1 - 38.1 g CO2-eq/kWh. Finally, we use sensitivity analyses to highlight the importance of prolonging the device lifetime and quantify the impacts of uncertainty induced by the still immature manufacturing processes, changing operating conditions, and individual differences for each module.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work is supported in part by National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award (CBET-1643244). S.D.S. acknowledges support from the Royal Society and Tata Group (UF150033).
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.titleLife cycle assessment of recycling strategies for perovskite photovoltaic modules
dc.typeArticle
prism.endingPage829
prism.issueIdentifier9
prism.publicationDate2021
prism.publicationNameNature Sustainability
prism.startingPage821
prism.volume4
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.71764
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-05-24
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/s41893-021-00737-z
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-09-01
dc.contributor.orcidStranks, Samuel [0000-0002-8303-7292]
dc.contributor.orcidYou, F [0000-0001-9609-4299]
dc.identifier.eissn2398-9629
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idRoyal Society (UF150033)
cam.issuedOnline2021-06-24
cam.orpheus.successMon Jul 05 07:30:46 BST 2021 - Embargo updated
cam.orpheus.counter1
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2021-07-01


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