A mixed methods approach to exploring the moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the integrated chronic disease management model in South Africa
Alaba, Olufunke A.
BMC Health Services Research
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Lebina, L., Oni, T., Alaba, O. A., & Kawonga, M. (2020). A mixed methods approach to exploring the moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the integrated chronic disease management model in South Africa. BMC Health Services Research, 20 (1)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05455-4
Abstract: Background: Chronic care models like the Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model strive to improve the efficiency and quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a dearth of studies assessing the moderating factors of fidelity during the implementation of the ICDM model. The aim of this study is to assess moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the ICDM model. Methods: This was a cross-sectional mixed method study conducted in two health districts in South Africa. The process evaluation and implementation fidelity frameworks were used to guide the assessment of moderating factors influencing implementation fidelity of the ICDM model. We interviewed 30 purposively selected healthcare workers from four facilities (15 from each of the two facilities with lower and higher levels of implementation fidelity of the ICDM model). Data on facility characteristics were collected by observation and interviews. Linear regression and descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results: The median age of participants was 36.5 (IQR: 30.8–45.5) years, and they had been in their roles for a median of 4.0 (IQR: 1.0–7.3) years. The moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the ICDM model were the existence of facilitation strategies (training and clinical mentorship); intervention complexity (healthcare worker, time and space integration); and participant responsiveness (observing operational efficiencies, compliance of patients and staff attitudes). One feature of the ICDM model that seemingly compromised fidelity was the inclusion of tuberculosis patients in the same stream (waiting areas, consultation rooms) as other patients with non-communicable diseases and those with HIV/AIDS with no clear infection control guidelines. Participants also suggested that poor adherence to any one component of the ICDM model affected the implementation of the other components. Contextual factors that affected fidelity included supply chain management, infrastructure, adequate staff, and balanced patient caseloads. Conclusion: There are multiple (context, participant responsiveness, intervention complexity and facilitation strategies) interrelated moderating factors influencing implementation fidelity of the ICDM model. Augmenting facilitation strategies (training and clinical mentorship) could further improve the degree of fidelity during the implementation of the ICDM model.
Research Article, Organization, structure and delivery of healthcare, Chronic care model, Ideal clinic, Primary healthcare, Contextual factors
South African Medical Research Council (494184)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05455-4
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/324895