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dc.contributor.authorJakob, Lukas
dc.contributor.authorDeacon, WM
dc.contributor.authorHicks, O
dc.contributor.authorManyakin, I
dc.contributor.authorOjambati, OS
dc.contributor.authorTraxler, M
dc.contributor.authorBaumberg, Jeremy
dc.date.accessioned2021-11-12T00:30:19Z
dc.date.available2021-11-12T00:30:19Z
dc.date.issued2021-12-20
dc.identifier.issn2334-2536
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/330572
dc.description.abstractExtracting signals at low single-photon count rates from large backgrounds is a challenge in many optical experiments and technologies. Here we demonstrate a single-photon lock-in detection scheme based on continuous photon time stamping to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by more than two orders of magnitude. Through time-resolving the signal modulation induced by periodic perturbations, 98% of dark counts are filtered out and the <1 count/s contributions from several different nonlinear processes identified. As a proof-of-concept, coherent anti-Stokes Raman measurements are used to determine the vibrational lifetime of few molecules in a plasmonic nanocavity. This detection scheme can be applied to all single-photon counting experiments with any number of simultaneous modulation frequencies, greatly increasing signal-to-noise and resolving physical processes with picosecond time resolution while keeping photon dosage small. Open instrumentation provided here enables low-cost implementation.
dc.languageen
dc.publisherThe Optical Society
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.rights.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
dc.titleSingle photon multiclock lock-in detection by picosecond timestamping
dc.typeArticle
prism.publicationNameOptica
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.78016
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-11-09
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1364/OPTICA.441487
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-11-09
dc.contributor.orcidBaumberg, Jeremy [0000-0002-9606-9488]
dc.identifier.eissn2334-2536
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) (829067)
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Research Infrastructures (RI) (861950)
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) ERC (883703)
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/L015978/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/L027151/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/S022953/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/P029426/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/R020965/1)
cam.issuedOnline2021-12-20
datacite.issupplementedby.urlhttps://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.78088
cam.orpheus.success2021-11-11 - Embargo set during processing via Fast-track
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2021-11-09


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