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dc.contributor.authorBasford, Lewis
dc.contributor.authorSims, Chris
dc.contributor.authorAgar, Iain
dc.contributor.authorHarinam, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorStrang, Heather
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-05T16:28:19Z
dc.date.available2022-01-05T16:28:19Z
dc.date.issued2021-12
dc.identifier.issn2520-1344
dc.identifier.others41887-021-00067-2
dc.identifier.other67
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/332034
dc.description.abstract<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec> <jats:title>Research Question</jats:title> <jats:p>Does one foot patrol per day (15–20 min) conducted in serious violence harm spots reduce street-visible crime harm and frequency relative to no foot patrol in the same hot spots, and if so by how much?</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Data</jats:title> <jats:p>We identified 20 hot spots of 150m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> each on the basis of community violence defined as serious assaults, robbery, and drug dealing in the Southend-on-Sea area of Essex Police, with boundaries geo-fenced to collect GPS measures of foot patrol presence generated by hand-held electronic trackers issued to officers directed to perform patrols. All street-visible crimes were counted for each of the 90 days of the experiment in each hot spot.</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>Daily random assignment of each hot spot to either control or treatment conditions (<jats:italic>N</jats:italic> = 90 X 20 = 1800 place-days) prescribed 720 place-days to receive extra patrols by Operational Support Group officers, which were compared to 1080 place-days with no extra patrols, using an intent-to-treat design, with 98% compliance with assigned treatments. Independent measures of other police presence in the area were tracked by the force-wide GPS telematics measures. All crimes were coded with the Cambridge Crime Harm Index for their CHI value.</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Findings</jats:title> <jats:p>The 20 harm spots comprised just 2.6% of the geographical area of the Southend-on-Sea area, with 41% of all its Cambridge CHI crime harm in the year preceding the experiment. Background patrol presence was about 2 min per day on control days and 1 min per treatment day. Crime harm scores for serious community violence were 88.5% lower on experimental days with extra patrols (mean = 1.07 CHI per treatment place-day) than without it (mean = 9.30 CHI per control place-day). Crime harm scores for all street-visible offences were 35.6% lower on treatment days (mean = 7.94 CHI per treatment place-day) than control days (mean = 12.33 CHI per control place-day), while the mean count of all street-visible offences was 31% lower on treatment days (mean count = 0.09 crimes per treatment place-day) than on control days (mean count = 0.13 crimes per control place-day). The estimated effect of the 720 days with 15-min patrols was to prevent crimes with recommended imprisonment of 3161 days, or 8.66 years.</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title> <jats:p>The use of two-officer foot patrol can be highly effective at preventing serious violence in street-visible settings in small areas in which such violence is heavily concentrated.</jats:p> </jats:sec>
dc.languageen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subjectResearch Article
dc.subjectFoot patrol
dc.subjectHot spots
dc.subjectResidual deterrence
dc.subjectCrime harm index
dc.subjectRandomised experiment
dc.subjectStreet-visible crime
dc.subjectCrossover design
dc.titleEffects of One-a-Day Foot Patrols on Hot Spots of Serious Violence and Crime Harm: a Randomised Crossover Trial
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-01-05T16:28:18Z
prism.endingPage133
prism.issueIdentifier3-4
prism.publicationNameCambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing
prism.startingPage119
prism.volume5
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.79481
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1007/s41887-021-00067-2
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.identifier.eissn2520-1336
cam.issuedOnline2021-09-06


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