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dc.contributor.authorSuarez, SME
dc.contributor.authorBorja-Castro, LE
dc.contributor.authorValerio-Cuadros, MI
dc.contributor.authorDomínguez, AB
dc.contributor.authorCabrera-Tinoco, HA
dc.contributor.authorHuaman, E
dc.contributor.authorValencia-Bedregal, RA
dc.contributor.authorZhao, X
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Y
dc.contributor.authorZhang, D
dc.contributor.authorBarnes, Crispin
dc.contributor.authorDe Los Santos Valladares, Luis
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-07T16:50:22Z
dc.date.available2022-01-07T16:50:22Z
dc.date.issued2021-12
dc.identifier.issn0304-3843
dc.identifier.others10751-021-01769-9
dc.identifier.other1769
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/332381
dc.description.abstract<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>A billet is a bar made from crude steel which surface contains scales which are rich in iron oxides. This study presents the carbothermal reduction of the scales formed in steel billets. The process included the reaction of the iron oxides contents with carbon (in ratio 5:1) and annealing in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere. The occurred reactions are discussed using thermodynamic calculations and thermal analysis which indicate a three-stage reduction process Fe<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>O<jats:sub>4</jats:sub> ➔ FeO ➔ Fe<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>C ➔α-Fe with intermediate reactions at the interval temperature 960 and 1300 °C. The X-ray diffraction confirms the reduction to α-Fe with minor presence of unreacted C, magnetite and wustite. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis was performed at room temperature where a typical sextet corresponding to the dominant α-Fe is shown as well as wustite, magnetite and cementite to a lesser extent. The magnetization measurements confirm the ferromagnetic state corresponding to the α-Fe.</jats:p>
dc.languageen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subjectArticle
dc.subjectProceedings of the International Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ICAME 2021), 5-10 September 2021, Brasov, Romania
dc.subjectMill scales
dc.subjectSteel billets
dc.subjectContinuous casting process
dc.subjectSteel industry
dc.subjectMossbauer spectroscopy
dc.subjectCarbothermal reduction
dc.subjectX-ray diffraction
dc.titleCarbothermal reduction of mill scales formed on steel billets during continuous casting
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-01-07T16:50:21Z
prism.issueIdentifier1
prism.publicationNameHyperfine Interactions
prism.volume242
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.79827
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-11-08
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1007/s10751-021-01769-9
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.contributor.orcidBarnes, Crispin [0000-0001-7337-7245]
dc.contributor.orcidDe Los Santos Valladares, Luis [0000-0001-5930-9916]
dc.identifier.eissn1572-9540
pubs.funder-project-idUniversidad Nacional de Cañete (Unknown)
cam.issuedOnline2021-11-15


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